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Soccer socks should better be as rugged as their owner. They get the brunt of the game as much as the player and should support all that physicality. Here are some features veteran soccer players look for in a pair of soccer socks.

Cushioned foot bed

When inspecting a pair of soccer socks, look closely at the foot bed. Soccer pros advise that you look for extra cushion down where your foot is in the shoe. Without sufficient cushioning at the foot bed, the player could sustain foot injuries.


A very physical game such as soccer requires breathable soccer socks which allow micro-ventilation to allow evaporation of sweat and exchange of necessary for creating a comfortable degree of coolness. Socks which are not breathable get too hot right in the middle of the game that players often have to take them off for a while.

Right length

Soccer socks should be long enough to fit right above the calf so as not to let the shin guard slide down during the game. Socks which fall slightly below the calf run the risk of rolling down. They should not be too long as to create unsightly bunches along the sides. The bottomline is to look for socks with just the perfect length for you.

Perfect support

Perhaps the one feature most soccer players look for in soccer socks is the fit or support level. Soccer players want socks that fit just right-enough to offer sturdy compression without causing constriction or discomfort.

Dries fast

Some recommend soccer socks that are made of synthetic material for the reason that they dry fast. This feature eliminates odor issues associated with socks that dry slowly. Socks that can be washed in the sink, hanged for just a day and then be dry enough to be used the day after is certainly a convenience.

Seamless toe seams

It is bothersome to have soccer socks that bunch at the toe seams. The nature of soccer allows for some serious kicking at the toes so that socks with a smooth, almost seamless toe design would be a good pick.

Personal preference

Some features of soccer socks can be left for the players themselves to choose. Designs, colors and brands are personal preferences which reflect the player’s personality and quirks. Some prefer simple and classic socks while others want team socks as a way of rooting for their favorite soccer team. Usually, a soccer player collects several types of socks, shifting from simple to flamboyant according to his mood.

World Cup Slime Soccer is like actual soccer in general, the difference is slime soccer is two dimensional, with 1 (semi-circular) player on every team, tiny nets, a wall on each side and a quite smaller field. You have an option to play with two players for a minute, two minutes or eight minutes. Plus you can have a chance to play another by pressing “World Cup”. If you see a line under each net, do not go on the one under your net for too long because if you do, you will be “pinged” and your opponent will earn the point.

During the qualifying round, the game will be played against either with Argentina, Belgium, Australia, Iceland, China, Costa Rica, Denmark, Cameroon or Denmark. It will be a 30 seconds game and not that hard to beat, especially if you know some soccer ball tricks and how to beat it. Primarily, do not go and grab the ball easily, instead, let your opponent to bring it to you. Have the patience to wait for it. One bet soccer tip is at a right time, with appropriate jump, it will go into the net. If it’s in the air, no better trick awaits your opponent.

In the quarter finals, the game will be played against Denmark, Ecuador, Mexico, France, USA, Italy, Japan or Russia. It is a two minutes game with extra time if deemed to be necessary.

For the Semis, it will be against either with Russia, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Slovenia, Spain, South Africa or South Korea. Same with 2 minute game with extra time if necessary but this time more defensive and smarter.

In the finals, the game is against either with South Korea, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, Uruguay, Brazil, and England, Germany or funny thing called the Night Elves. It is a 5 minute game.

Since arriving in Spain seven years ago, my search for Spanish ancientors (Francisco Bouligny – Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana under Bernardo de Galvez) has given me an awareness of just how little we Americans know about the vital importance of Spain's assistance in our War of Independence from English rule.

What follows great out of my own research and discussions with other interested American's both in Spain and the US. It started out as a desire to share this information with fellow Americans who stayed in my companies (www.rentalspain.com) short term furnished apartments for tourism and business stays in Madrid, and grown into membership in the SAR and involvement with the DAR.

My hopes are that the reader will also catch my desire to learn more, and spread the word in attempt to fill this gap in a very important part of our nation's history.

The Prelude:

At the end of The War of the Spanish Succession 1713-14
Britain was in possession of Gibraltar and Menorca. Over the next 50 years there were a number of European wars and constant struggle for domination which even involved Russia and Poland.

However the real starting point for this commentary was the Seven Years War of 1756 -1763. In the closing year Spain allied itself with France via the "Bourbon" Third Family Compact, and thenby shared in its defeat by Britain

At the Treaty of Paris in 1763 Spain lost Florida which then included the Gulf Coast up to the past Louisiana territory. To Portugal it lost Uruguay.

France lost all of Canada and India, and ceded to Britain all of its territory east of the Mississippi River. However, New Orleans and the vast Louisiana Territory Louis XV felt better given over to Bourbon Spain.

The size of this territory was huge! It included parts of Minnesota, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Kentucky, Arkansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama.

Subsequent to the treaty, Britain was too war-weary to hold onto many of these spoils and returned the islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique to France, and Cuba to Spain. It did however retain lumbering and trading rights and activities throughout the Caribbean.

Spain's King Carlos III was a far sighted and energetic Monarch and took this defeat to heart and commanded building up his naval and military forces toward that time when he and Britain would once again be at war.

Simultaneously he put in place economic and administrative reforms that initiated an economic regeneration both in Spain and its American holdings.

The Reason:

When the time was right for Spain, why did it ally itself with France, in support of the Colonies?

Spain wanted the return of Gibraltar and Menorca, the control of Florida, Jamaica and the Bahamas, and the control of navigation on the Mississippi River. It also wanted to eliminate British establishments on the east coast of Mexico and Honduras.

In order to achieve this, Carlos III and his Ministers decided upon a policy of Divide and Rule. That is, by helping the "rebelling English Colonies" fight for their independence, they could haverey tie up British money, fleets and troops in North America, while Spanish forces set about directly clearing the British out of the Caribbean.

As history has shown, Spain's Divide and Rule strategy has provided especially helpful to the "Rebelling English Colonists" in achieving victory and their own independence.

The Players:

In the writers opinion, the history of Spain's contribution is most interestingly told through insights to those whom Carlos III chose to accomplish his goals.

Jose Monnino y Redodo, Conde de Floridablanca: Minister of State – Probably the most important non-combatant, if not person, in all of this. The rebuilding of the naval and military forces Carlos III initiated required time. Unlike France which openly declared war on Britain in 1776 in support of the rebelling English Colonies, Floridablanca kept Spain from declaring war on Britain until 1779. Spain was prepared to do so.

He doggedly pursued the goal of getting Britain out of the Gulfs of Mexico and Caribbean right up to the signing of peace in 1783. Only in not regaining Gibraltar and capturing Jamaica did he fall short of his goal.

Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, Conde de Aranda: Spain's minister to France. At the insistence of Floridablanca he was the only Spanish representative through which official business with the American Commission, chaired by Benjamin Franklin, could take place and that only in Paris. In fact, in 1777, one American Commissioner was refused entry through northern Spain in order to protect Spain's "neutrality" vis a vis the British.

Aranda's close dealings with the American Commission made him a convert to their cause and very pro-American. So much so that he pressured Madrid for Spain's declaration of war on Britain years before his superior, Conde de Floridablanca, judged Spain ready to do so.

Diego Maria de Garoqui Aniquibar: Basque – Head of the banking firm Gardoqui e Hijos in Bilbao. He spoke English and is one of the few non-governmental participants in this affair.

Through his bank, financial aid and supplies such as blankets, shoes and stockings, and medicines flowed to the Colonies via New Orleans. He secretly outfitted American privateers, like John Paul Jones, who would come into Bilbao and northern Spanish ports to sell the spoils of their captures from British merchant ships.

In 1785, he became Spain's first ambassador to the United States.

In a certain sense Spain's contribution to The American Revolution could be called "The Family of Macharavialla Affair"

These three members of the Galvez family were all born in that little Spanish hill town just inland of the southern Mediterranean Coast, not too far from Malaga.

Jose de Galvez – Minister over the Council of the Indies and patron of his older brother Matias and nephew, Bernardo de Galvez. Jose had overall responsibility for Spain's wartime activities in the Americas and through the Minister of State, Floridablanca convinces Carlos III that Spain's priority in the Americas should be that of defeating the British in Florida along the Gulf Coast and up the Mississippi River, before concentrating its efforts in the Caribbean campaign.

Matias de Galvez, Brother to Jose and father of Bernardo de Galvez. Like others of his family he rose quickly up the military ranks and was appointed Captain General of Guatemala in 1779 where British timber cutting, illicit trade and smuggling had become a significant drain on Spain's Central American revenues.

He was quickly successful in defeating and stopping British activities through the Gulf of Mexico in Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. As importantly, he was a key player in Spain's "Divide and Rule" policy, with his activities preventing British strategists from concentrating their forces against either the Colonist Revolt or Caribbean campaign.

For his achievements he was named "Viceroy of Nueva Espana" and died in that office in Mexico. Later he would be followed by his son Bernardo, who also died in that office in 1786 at the age of 40.

Bernardo de Galvez After a very successful military career under his uncle Jose in Nueva Espana which included fighting Native American Indians and expelling Spanish Jesuit priest from the same western part of the North American continent. He was made Governor of Louisiana in 1776.

From 1776 to 1783 his diplomatic, financial and military exploits against the British in the Mississippi River valley, along the Gulf Coast of Florida and contribution to British defeat at Yorktown, all proved to be Spain's most direct and immensely important contribution to the American Revolution.

Already in 1775 Spain was stockpiling gun powder, bullets and clothing in New Orleans in anticipation of the Colonies declaration of independence. Transported up the inland water ways of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, some of these supplies would even eventually reach George Washington's troops on the East Coast.

Together with an Irish-American merchant and agent from Virginia, Oliver Pollock, Bernardo supplied the successful American campaigns lead by George Rogers Clark against the British in the trans-Allegany regions (Pennsylvania and Ohio of today). And thanks to Bernardo's wartime activities these were the only British attacks on the Colonists along their western borders.

By the end of the war Pollock had bankrupted himself and forfeited his territories buying supplies from Spain in support of his nescient United States. In the years after the war Bernardo came to his assistance in obtaining reimbursement from Congress.

The Battles:

Fought by Spanish Forces under the command of Bernardo de Galvez where not one American Colonialist was present.

Upon Spain's declaration of war in 1779, Bernardo immediately set out from New Orleans to defeat the British. Just 90 miles up the Mississippi river he defeated them first at Fort Bute at Manchac and thethen Baton Rouge
1780 – His troops took the British fort at what is now St Louis, Missouri.
1781- His Spanish led French militia operating from St. Francis. Louis won a winter victory at St. Louis Josephs on the shores of Lake Michigan !!

1780 – The Battle of Mobile. Was three months in the making from the time Galvez set sail from New Orleans to his victory.

The year before, a hurricane had drowned 400 of his men while enroute. Again he was weather delayed in arriving at the port, followed by the stranding of two of his ships in the mouth of the harbor. While he absolutely did receive reinforcements from Havana on the eve of his attack, it was not before his original troops had basically unloaded the stranded vessels and moved their supplies and cannons into position.

In the end he had assembled around 800 men against the 200 British defenders. However during the time he was preparing for his attack, a British force of 1100 from Pensacola had marched to within three leagues distance behind him, so one can not exactly say that he had the advantage!

The lieutenant governor of Louisiana under Galvez, Francisco Bouligny was an acquaintance of and met with the British Commander in an attempt to obtain an early surrender. However that gentleman replied that honor bound him not to surrender without a fight.

The battle and surrender took place in one day!

Fortunately for Galvez, upon hearing of the surrender, the Commander of the Pensacola forces simply marched back home.

For this success Carlos III cave Bernardo de Galvez the title of "Field Marshall for the Spanish Operation in the Americas".

1781 – The Battle of Pensacola – As much as Bernardo wanted to move directly from Mobile on this port, he was unable to do so for another year due to lack of support from Havana and another hurricane that frustrated traffic into position.

Unlike Mobile when he supported his troops with his own vessels at Pensacola Galvez also had the Spanish naval fleet from Havana. While he was the overall commanding officer, in the end he had to badger and insult the naval commanders to enter the harbor and engage the enemy. This was because their own Admiral's vessel ran around on the approach and he adamantly refused to enter the harbor.

Therefore it was Bernardo ALONE on his vessel The Galvezton that entered the harbor under fire from the British fort and set up a beach head. Having seen this, the smaller Navy vessels skulked into the harbor and the real business of preparing to attack the fort finally got underway. Similar to Mobile his soldiers had to man handle their cannons and supplies into position.

At this point he had 3500 men and with the arrival of a combined Spanish and French reinforcement fleet from Havana his total reached 7000 men.

On the second day of bombardment a Spanish howitzer stuck and destroyed the armory in the outer defenses, killing some 150 men. It is reported that Francisco Bouligny led one of the first charges through the destroyed battlements and dropped down the British Colors

For this success Bernardo de Galvez was given the title of "Conde de Galvez" and permission to place the silhouette of his ship The Galvezton and the words "Yo Solo" (I alone) on his Coat of Arms

A bit later in 1781-Bernardo put down a revolt in Natchez on the Mississippi River and conducted mopping up operations around Florida.

October 1781 – The battle of Yorktown, Virginia. Although no Spanish forces were there, it was Bernardo's strategist Captain Francisco de Saavedra who had planned and financed the French Fleet and Armies presence and aid to George Washington's troops. At Yorktown the British army under the command of Lord Cornwallis surrendered to this combined French and American force.

It might be said that the unsung hero of this part of the Revolutionary War is this same:
Captain Francisco de Saavedra de Sangronis. Born in Sevilla. Like Jose de Galvez he was trained in theology for a monastic life, but then turned to the military and was invited into the court of Carlos III.

In 1776 he was serving in Spain's Embassy in Portugal.

After Spain's declaration of war on England, Saavedra was sent to Havana in 1780 as "Royal Commissioner from the Court of Madrid" and was imprisoned on Spain's governing body for the Americas, under Jose de Galvez, "The Council of the Indies".

Saavedra's orders from Madrid were to convince the "General Committee of War" in Havana to support Bernardo de Galvez's attacks on the western Florida gulf coast. Having convinced them of that, he then supervised preparation of the expedition of 3500 troops that included a French contingent of 4 frigates and 750 men, to reinvigorate Bernardo de Galvez's attack on Pensacola.

Subsequent to Pensacola, Saavedra became Bernardo's major strategist and principal liaison to the French Forces. In fact the French requested his transfer to the staff of their naval Commander, Comte Francois-Joseph-Paul de Grasse. He was instrumental in forming the French strategies in the Caribbean. He obtained Bernardo de Galvez's permission to release the French fleet from the Caribbean campaign and sail it north to Virginia. Plus, he raised funds in Santo Domingo and Havana to pay for that French fleet and army's participation in the climatic battle for US independence at Yorktown.

After Yorktown, Saavedra served the "Viceroy of Nueva Espana", Matias de Galvez, as his strategist, in defeating the British through the Caribbean. His plan for an amphibious attack on British held Jamaica was relatively equivalent in size to some of the major amphibious invasions of WWII.

Years later he became one of Spain's National heroes when he organized and led the resistance against Napoleon's forces during their occupation of Spain.

Spain signed a Peace Agreement with Britain on the 20th of January 1783,

What might have been:

Had Britain returned Gibraltar in 1777 Spain might have withheld its support of France when it declared war on the side of the Colonies in 1776. However, at the time, King George III said "No" to the negotiations.

Two years later in 1779, Gibraltar was once again on the negotiation table but this time King Carlos III felt that protecting Spain's Gulf and Caribbean interests by driving the British out carried a greater importance than peace with Britain and Gibraltar's return.

Spain's Financial Contribution:

In addition to the guns, powder, bullets, clothing, and blankets sent by Carlos III to the Colonies, Spain provided a stunning amount of money and credit.

In May of 1776 Spain and France jointly set up the dummy company of Roderique Hortalez et Cie. in Paris. Each country provided an initial investment of one million livres ($ 750,000) of munitions and supplies. Next they opened a line of credit for 7,730,000 livres ($ 5,797,500). Later still they provided an additional three million livres ($ 2.25 million) to be repaid by the Colonies with tobacco, indigo, potash and rice.

The Bilbao Bankers Gardoqui e Hijos, Bilbao, alone sent some 70,000 pesos ($ 2 million).

As mentioned earlier the strategist Saavedra funded the French fleet and 5000 troops at Yorktown, first by raising 100,000 pesos ($ 3 million) in Spanish Puerto Rico and Santo Domingo. He then sailed to Havana where he found a shipment of one million pesos from Mexico's silver mines he was expecting was late. Consequently, in two days time, he was locally raised and dispatched 500,000 pesos ($ 15 Million) to catch up with the French fleet which was already enroute to Virginia! Five days later the original one million pesos ($ 30 Million) arrived and he dispatched this as well! Authorization for much of this was done simply on the word of Saavedra and Jose de Galvez's signature!

From the territories of Nueva España was contributed $ 126,480 from New Mexico and another $ 672,600 from Sonora Mexico.

Toldeo Spain: Contributed 500,000 reales ($ 1,875,000). And the little town of Malaga 200,000 copper reales ($ 37,500).

The monetary impact of Spain's Contribution:

It is no surprise that this volume of Spanish currency flowing into the colonies affected the new American currency – and its appearance. For centuries Spain has used the Pillars of Hercules to symbolize its control of the Straits of Gibraltar. The Greek like pillars typically flank the royal shield and are loosely wrapped with a ribbon. The Colonists came to denote Spanish currency as an S having two vertical lines through it, which evolved into the US Dollar sign of today.

The word "Dollar" itself came from the German line of the Spanish Hapsburg's "Thaler" and became the English word for the Spanish peso used through out Spain and the Spanish Colonies. The Colonists became accustomed to the word and made it the name for their new currency despite spelled and pronounced Dollar.

In 1775, a year before the Declaration of Independence, the first issue of Continental paper money provided that the notes would be payable in "Spanish Milled Dollars or the value there in gold or silver".

The American rhyme teaching children the value of money "Two bits, Four bits Six bits, a Dollar" takes its origins from the Spanish "Piece of Eight" – a coin that could be physically broken apart into 8 equal parts or bits. Two bits from the 8 equals the American "Quarter", or 25 cent piece.

In recapitulation:

For its alliance with France in support of the rebelling English Colonies Spain wanted Gibraltar, Menorca, Florida, Jamaica, and the Bahamas and control of the mouth of the Mississippi River. Furthermore, British establishments on the east coast of Mexico and Honduras were to be eliminated.

In the end the Colonies won their independence and Spain achieved all its goals except capturing Jamaica and regaining Gibraltar.

In recognition:

In October of 2006 the Daughters of the American Revolution placed a plaque in the garden of the Casa de Americas in Madrid in recognition of Spain's contribution to the American Independence. Two nights later the Madrid Council of the US Navy League (www.nlmadrid.org) presented the Supreme Commanding Officer of all Spanish Military Forces, its highest award, The Admiral Farragut Statue, in thanks and recognition for Spain's contribution to American Independence.

The Commanding Officer was gracious in accepting the award, and responded by observing that when Spain was large and the Colonies in need, Spain had its support, and that today when those roles have reversed, that Amistad still exists.

Soccer cleats just like regular shoes are sized to help players find snug fitting shoes that will make kicking the ball ad running as comfortable as possible. Considering that soccer cleats need to be tighter in terms of fit, you really cannot rely on your regular shoe size when buying your cleats. Soccer shoes are made from thin materials and a tight fit ensures optimal ball touch and feel.


When looking for the right snug fitting soccer boot, the material is among the things you should always consider. Cleats made from premium leather, especially kangaroo leather tends to start stretching after a few uses. High quality leather molds to feet shape and when new they need to fit snugly so that even after a few uses they do not stretch and feel too roomy for your feet. When buying synthetics, remember they do not stretch that much, hence you should buy comfortably fitting cleats compared to tight ones.

Width and length

These two elements are used to determine cleat size and using them you can be in a position to choose a pair you will love and enjoy wearing and playing in. For performance and comfort, your cleats should fit closely to end of foot, but not touch on toes; the gap should be anywhere between ¼ and ½ inch. Usually the upper part of the soccer shoe is designed narrow to keep the feet from sliding around inside as you play. For this reason, most cleats come in one width dimensions differing only in length. If you have wide feet, then you may want to check cleats designed with wide feet in mind.

Determining the right fit

When looking for the best, start by picking a pair that you actually like and from a brand you can trust with quality. Players who love their shoes tend to give better performances than those who don’t.

Next, you should figure out your size. If you have the luxury of trying them on before buying, try them on to ensure they are tight, but not so much that they hurt your feet. They should be close fitting otherwise you will have issues kicking ball properly.

When trying on the cleats, pay attention to pressure points; a snug fit does not in any way mean uncomfortable. In case you are a young player who is still growing, cleats that are a little large sized may be ideal. You can get proper socks to fill in the space as your feet grow.

Be sure to stand up and walk around a little in the cleats when testing the size. This is the only way you will be able to truly feel the toe position and how good they feel on your feet. Of course you may need a little time to break-in your cleats but even though the feel should be tight, it should feel right in every sense. You can try on as many different sizes as possible until you find the perfect one for your feet.

The events of history have been documented as an objective form of non-fiction throughout time. The way in which historians compose these events is termed historiography. Historiography in its simplest terms is a historical form of literature. A more accurate description of historiography is that it is the principles, theories, or methodology of scholarly historical research and presentation. It is also the writing of history based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and selection of authentic source materials, as well as composition of these materials into a narrative subject. It is the study of how historians interpret the past. Historiography is a debate and argument about previous and current representations of the past. Historiography is present in all historical works big and small. The notorious Peace Conference of 1919 has received its fair share of historiography. There are many viewpoints and interpretations of the ins and outs of the peace conference by vast numbers of historians; the historical works that will be focused on in this composition are The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933 by Sally Marks, The Peace Conference of 1919 by F.S. Marston, Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939 by W.M. Jordan, and Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan.

The extent as to which the conference was discussed varies by historian. Sally Marks’ The Illusion of Peace, is broken down into six chapters that focus primarily on peace. These chapters are titled The Pursuit of Peace, The Effort to Enforce the Peace, The Revision of the Peace, The Years of Illusion, The Crumbling of Illusion, and The End of All Illusion. For the sake of this composition we will focus on chapter 1, The Pursuit of Peace, which deals primarily with the Peace Conference. Marks begins The Illusion of Peace by stating that “major wars often provide the punctuation marks of history, primarily because they force drastic realignments in the relationships among states.” F.S. Marston chose to take a slightly different route in recording the occurrences of the Peace Conference in his The Peace Conference of 1919. Marston’s main focus was not on the concept of peace itself but the actual procedure of the Peace Conference. In the preface of The Peace Conference of 1919, he states that his purpose for writing the book was because “there was an obvious need for an objective analysis of the organization of the Conference.” Marston breaks The Peace Conference of 1919 into eighteen chapters. These chaoters go into great detail about the characteristics of the conference. The book begins with “The Paris Peace Conference was a unique gathering of the nations. We are still perhaps too near it and too deeply involved in its consequences to make a final appraisal of its work.”

Another perspective to be discussed is that of W. M. Jordan in Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939, which is divided into seventeen chapters. These chapters discuss everything from the concepts of peace of 1914-1918 to the European framework of territorial settlement. Professor C. K. Webster states in the foreword of Great Britain, France, and the German Problem that “this study makes painful but salutary reading. It faces relentlessly certain facts which have produced the world in which we live now. It is objective, and the author has taken the greatest care to be as fair to France as to Britain.” The last perspective to be discussed is that of Margaret MacMillan, who, by far, presents the most information on the Peace Conference out of the previous listed historians. Her Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, has eight parts and thirty chapters. In the foreword written by Richard Holbrooke, it is stated that MacMillan’s account of the seminal event in Paris 1919 contains several success stories, but is measured against the judgment of history and consequences.

Marks begins, early on in the Illusion of Peace, discussing the sudden collapse of Germany and the surprise it caused to the victors. The defeat of Germany was so prevalent in the minds of the Allies that they failed to consider planning the peace that follows after war. Marks stressed that what little peace planning that was in progress was not even close to being considered effective. She states that out of all of the major Allies, the French were the closest to being the best prepared for matters of peace. She gave the reasoning behind this to be that the French had a predetermined notion of what mattered to them and were less than interested in what occurred on a global scale. Marks writes that the American standpoint on peace was obscured by President Woodrow Wilson’s highly ambiguous Fourteen Points, which are ideally good points, but from a realistic standpoint face a difficult time being implemented because of their complexities.

As for the location of the Peace Conference, Marks writes that Paris was not the ideal place for such a conference. Paris was considered a poor location because “wartime passion [ran] higher there than any other location” and the capital was in no condition, after four years of war, to provide lodging and other important amenities to the leaders. In the first chapter, Marks, uses Erich Eyck’s A History of the Weimar Republic to support information on the relationship between the Allies and Germany. She also discusses the fatal influenza that was sweeping across Europe and the rest of the world. During this discussion, Marks writes that Germany was fortunate in that its people were not starving like the rest of the war torn countries. As for the actual conference, Marks writes that “When the conference finally got down to business, it functioned very haphazardly. Much of the work was done by committees.” She elaborates on this statement by stating that several things played a major part in the haphazardness of the decisions made. Some of these things included influence and idiosyncrasy, and personality and prejudice. When dealing with the League of Nations, Marks writes that provided the circumstances of such damaging characteristics the League was set up to fail and the creation of such a thing presented a misleading illusion of peace that was impossible to achieve.

In Marks’ recordings of the Treaty of Versailles, she explains that the treaty has been criticized a great deal throughout history and deserves to be because of its numerous inadequacies and lack of attention to “economic realities.” Marks writes that despite the criticisms for the economic aspects of the treaty, great care had been taken in the preservation of economic units by the Allied leaders. She presents several different views of certain events in order to provide the reader with as much objectivity as is possible. She explains that despite what has been recorded or despite popular belief, there is always room for argument as to what was and was not effective during the Peace Conference of 1919. The last pages of The Illusion of Peace are dedicated to a chronological table of the events that took place before, during, and after the Peace Conference. There is an extensive bibliography that includes documents and official publications, such as the official journal of the League of Nations, and diaries, letters, and memoirs, such as David Lloyd George’s Memoirs of the Peace Conference. An extensive number of secondary sources were used in addition to several periodicals as well. The last component of The Illusion of Peace is Marks’ notes and references. All in all, this account of the Peace Conference of 1919 was presented in an unbiased and informative manner.

F. S. Marston took on the role of composing a historical rendition of the organization and procedure of the conference in The Peace Conference of 1919. Marston’s position on the organization of the conference is as follows: “The following pages will show the extent to which the throwing away of the fruits of victory twenty-five years ago was due to premature relaxation of effort and failure to make immediate use of the organization that had been so laboriously developed.” One of the first things included in The Peace Conference of 1919 was a chart depicting the general organization of the conference. The Council of Ten is the center of this chart, which branches out into the sub-councils, which in turn branch out into smaller more centralized committees. Marston describes the conference in relation to earlier conferences and events. According to Marston, the most critical development that occurred in the year 1917, just two years before the Peace Conference, the Supreme War Council was formally established. Marston includes references from General Bliss to reiterate a fact about the war council and its roles. The primary function of the council was to monitor the conduct of the war, but it also acted as a political body.

After discussing the Supreme War Council, Marston proceeds into discussing the Armistices in chapter two. Within the first paragraph, Marston writes that “The main background to the peace negotiations of 1919 was foreshadowed by the German Note of 4th October asking President Wilson to take the necessary steps to secure a suspension of hostilities.” The bulk of Marston’s information is based on times, dates, and locations. Chapter two does not focus so much on who did what, but rather when the event took place and for how long did the event last. Marston jumps from the Armistice to the Conference in chapter three and in chapter four. He begins chapter three by discussing the importance of the time interval between the Armistice and the Peace Conference. “It was a time of intense diplomatic activity, but of very little tangible progress, preparation for the Conference being combined with complete uncertainty as to the exact point at which it was to take charge of the negotiations” writes Marston.

In the remaining chapters Marston continues to explain and present the organizational characteristics of the Conference in great detail. The very last chapter is titled Retrospect and includes Marston’s view on how the Peace Conference of 1919 has affected the world and how it will continue to leave its mark. He writes “The Peace Conference of 1919 must certainly occupy an important place in the long succession of similar gatherings, if only because of the scale on which it was organized.” Immediately following the Retrospect, is the Chronology. Marston’s bibliography includes documents, diaries and letters, and general works, followed by his many references. He presents the information about the Peace Conference critically at times, believing that the conference was inadequate in performing the duties it was set to perform.

The perspective of W. M. Jordan, in Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939, is one that focuses on disarmament, reparation, and security during the events surrounding the Peace Conference and the events of the Peace Conference. Jordan admits to omitting information that strictly “belongs to the history of this central problem.” As with the historical works discussed previously, Jordan begins chapter one, titled Concepts of Peace: 1914-1918, discussing the events that led up to the Peace Conference of 1919. He focuses on the breakdown of the Versailles settlement among other things. Jordan quotes several key people in the events of 1914-1918. One such person, was an American writer or European origin. This writer, according to Jordan, stressed the President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, was held at esteem by the British because of his principles of idealism. Jordan discussed that “the idealism which inspired the Allied cause in the Great War of 1914-1918 was, in the first instance, the achievement of British Liberalism.” This war was inadvertently a war for democracy. Jordan presented the idea that it is important to understand that the war was not directed at the German people, rather at the Prussian military caste that was controlling them. Jordan also presents two more reasons for the war: the war was meant to liberate nations and become a war to end war. Jordan includes excerpts from Lloyd George’s speeches to convey this message. He focuses a great deal on President Woodrow Wilson’s role in the quest for peace. When discussing the Fourteen Points, Jordan admits that they are too well known to need to be quoted.

In chapter two of Great Britain, France, and the German Problem, Jordan discusses the fact that “historians have paid little attention to the preparation of the document signed on 11th November 1918, which set out the military and naval terms with which Germany was required to comply as a condition of the suspension of warfare.” The purpose of this chapter was to study the political implications of the Armistice. This document started the ball rolling on the Peace Conference. The major players in the composition of the Armistice were Haig, Foch, and Bliss. Jordan discusses that the study of the conflicting views of the three men reveals that the problems with the armistice’s military terms were not of a military order, but of a political order. During this discussion, Jordan presents the reader with several questions of the actions of the three men. It is also, in chapter two in which Jordan opposes the notion that the armistice was drafted mostly from President Wilson’s policy. He states, “The claim is hardly well founded.”

The subsequent chapters of Jordan’s Great Britain, France, and the German Problem, discuss the actual Peace Conference and the results of the conference. Chapter 3 is titled The Conference and the Treaty. In the opening paragraph, Jordan gives a description of what to expect from the chapter. According to Jordan, the Peace Conference’s course of negotiations in relation to the main aspects of the settlement between Europe and Germany is “given separate consideration” in the concluding chapters. Jordan believes that the chronological order of the Conference’s sequence of events is broken up by such an arrangement. He writes, “It may be desirable to preface this chapter by a short composite account of the negotiations in 1919.” Jordan also records the illnesses of the conference’s key players in chapter three. He describes how President Wilson falling ill played a part in changing the speed of the conference. Lloyd George began to lose hope for a quick resolution after Wilson became ill and was not able to participate in the Council of Four.

Jordan goes to great lengths to remain objective in his descriptions of the personal characters of the leaders. He uses a great amount of quoted material from Lloyd George, President Wilson, and Clemenceau. There is a rather lengthy excerpt from a speech given by Clemenceau on December 29, 1918. This speech was Clemenceau’s response to a challenge by Albert Thomas on the eve of the Conference. Jordan is full of questions about the events of the Conference; on every page there is a question or some form of insight presented to be pondered upon by the reader. Jordan presents the perspective of several different countries during the Conference. He discusses the plight that France faced as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Jordan writes, “France is now left to bear alone the brunt of German resentment. She must insist on the payment or reparation; she must protect the new settlement against disturbance by Germany.” Jordan explains that Great Britain’s opinion of the Treaty of Versailles was condemning and spawned many debates. In describing the views of the Treaty, Jordan presents the idea that worrying over the criticism the Treaty of Versailles was receiving, necessitated too much digression and is unessential. He focuses on the misjudgment of the purpose of the Treaty. He writes, “That the Treaty had been conceived in the wrong spirit-this was the more general and the more trenchant charge.” In discussing the Treaty, Jordan includes his evaluations of many historical works, one of which was Economic Consequences of the Peace by J. M. Keynes. He focuses his attention on two passages of which he claims come to the conclusion that the Treaty was “incompatible with the economic prosperity of Europe.” Jordan stresses the idea that Mr. Keynes’ economic criticisms were embedded in political philosophy. Jordan provides a historical work of the Peace Conference of 1919 that transcends the times in which it was written. He is bold in his statements, forthcoming with his questions, and fair as one can be in discussing the leaders themselves.

One of the most recent historical renditions of the Peace Conference of 1919 is Margaret MacMillan’s Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, which was published in 2001. MacMillan provides a well balanced look at the events in Paris in 1919. She is able to work past the easily taken road of blaming the many ills the world has experienced since this time on the Peace Conference. MacMillan also readily admits that many mistakes were made by the peacemakers. Some of these mistakes could have been easily avoided. Macmillan does an excellent job in taking into consideration the many factors that made many of the decisions made during the Conference seem more reasonable. She addresses countless issues involved in the meetings and committees of the Versailles conference, as well as the politics involved amongst the victorious allies. She addresses the fact that the Conference is most remembered for the production of the Treaty of Versailles; however, she writes, “but it was always about much more than that. The other enemies had to have their treaties.” MacMillan seems biased and apologetic. She attempts to win over readers by using an unorthodox approach which is oblivious to the balance of historical facts. For example, MacMillan explains that Keynes was “A very clever, rather ugly young man.” Keynes physical attraction seems irrelevant to the events surrounding the Treaty of Versailles, but MacMillan finds it important to make such a statement in describing his entire character. She also makes it a point to bring up the idea that the “Big Three” leaders were from democratic governments.

The format of Paris 1919 is interesting because each chapter focuses on a specific area of the conference. As a reference it is helpful, because each country is focused on in its own chapter. The negative side to this format is that it eliminates the chronological flow of the conference; therefore, making it difficult for the reader to follow the order of event occurrences. The cultural differences among the French, English, American and Italian as well as the German, Japanese, Chinese, Greek and others was outlined rather thoroughly by MacMillan. This book goes section by section through the world and talks about the effects of peace on the east, Middle East, Africa, and Europe. It redraws the borders, shows the alienation of Italy as well as the harshness of German reparations. The failure of the League of Nations is coached in this treaty and these six months were a catastrophe for the world. She also outlines the evolution of America into a world power. MacMillan addresses the contrast among President Woodrow and his European counterparts. Wilson was adamant about international morality; whereas, his counterparts focused on national gains as a result of the war. “Hitler did not wage war because of the Treaty of Versailles,” MacMillan writes in her concluding chapter. Even if Germany had retained everything that was taken from it at Versailles, he would have wanted more: “the destruction of Poland, control of Czechoslovakia, above all the conquest of the Soviet Union” as well of course as the annihilation of the Jews.”

In the introduction of Paris 1919, MacMillan writes “We know something of what it is to live at the end of a great war. When the Cold War ended in 1989 and Soviet Marxism vanished into the dustbin of history, older forces, religion, and nationalism, came out of their deep freeze.” She believes that it is a valid argument that resurgent Islam is our current menace; whereas, in 1919, the menace was Russian Bolshevism. Chapter one is dedicated to discussing Woodrow Wilson and his trip to Europe; a trip that is in itself one for the history books. This is so because never before had a United States President ever traveled to Europe while in office. MacMillan focuses on Wilson’s biographical information; discussing when and where he was born and the way of life during this time. She also discusses in great detail, Wilson’s struggle with depression and illness. This discussion can lead one to doubt Wilson’s credibility and ability to make proper judgments during the Peace Conference, because of his weakened mental state. MacMillan goes so far as to discuss President Wilson’s relationships with women and the gossip surrounding such relationships. She writes, “During his first marriage he had close, possibly even romantic, friendships with several women.”

Chapter four is dedicated to one of Wilson’s counterparts, Lloyd George. This chapter begins almost like a fictional novel. MacMillan writes, “On January 11, David Lloyd George bounded with his usual energy onto a British destroyer for the Channel crossing.” This is a rather playful description of the British leader. It seems a bit out of place in a historical rendition of a vastly serious world event. MacMillan goes into great detail about his character and physical appearance as well. MacMillan seems to place great emphasis on building up the British leader. Her objectivity can be questioned because of her familial connection to Lloyd George; she is his granddaughter, a fact that she fails to acknowledge in Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. Armed with this information, it is hard for the reader not to see the pedestal Lloyd George is placed upon by MacMillan.

MacMillan’s chapter five moves beyond the descriptions of the leaders and moves into their unity as the “League of the People.” It is in this chapter in which MacMillan deals with the composition of the Supreme Council. In addition to discussing the Council, MacMillan deems it important to provide the reader with descriptions of meeting places and how they appear present day. She writes, “The great staterooms at the Quai d’Orsay have survived the passage of time and a later German occupation surprisingly well.” She goes so far as to even describe the furnishings and color scheme of the room. MacMillan provides a great deal of information on the meeting held in places such as this. She writes that the Supreme Council met at least once a day, sometimes two or three times. These events led to the creation of The League of Nations, which MacMillan writes, “Only a handful of eccentric historians still bother to study the League of Nations.”

MacMillan recorded a thorough rendition of the Peace Conference of 1919 in Paris 1919. She left no area of interest untouched. Her four hundred ninety-four page work is broken into eight lengthy units which include thirty chapters total. She includes maps of Europe in 1914, Germany and Europe in 1920, East Central Europe in 1919, The Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, The Middle East from the Treaty of Sevres to the Treaty of Lausanne, China and the Pacific 1914-1919, and Africa in 1919. She also includes many different photographs taken during the Peace Conference and its surrounding events. She addresses issues in many different countries; such as, China, Poland, Palestine, Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to name a few. MacMillan’s appendix is composed of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and nothing else. She has a very extensive bibliography and an extensive note section. MacMillan’s evaluations of the many different works lead to a rather interesting historical rendition of a complicated and controversial period in history.

There is little doubt that the events, and the outcome, of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 played a major role in changing the world. Every historian discussed in this paper believed this to be so. Their views on certain aspects of the Conference, and how significant certain aspects were, may vary. All works are presented, in their forewords, as objective historical works that are composed of by extensive evaluations of other historical works and documents. The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933 by Sally Marks, The Peace Conference of 1919 by F.S. Marston, Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939 by W.M. Jordan, and Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World by Margaret MacMillan have provided readers with different views of the Conference. The way in which these historians composed their views of the Conference is termed historiography, which can described as, simply, a historical form of literature. A more accurate description of historiography is that it is the principles, theories, or methodology of scholarly historical research and presentation. Marks, Marston, Jordan, and MacMillan combined all of these aspects to carry on the legacy of Peace Conference of 1919 and the end of the First World War.


Jordan. W.M. Great Britain, France, and the German Problem 1918-1939. Surrey, England: Gresham Press, 1971.

MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2001.

Marks, Sally. The Illusion of Peace: International Relations in Europe 1918-1933. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1976.

Marston, F.S. The Peace Conference of 1919. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1944.

The National Centre for History Education. “What is Historiography-and why is it Important?” Available from http://www.hyperhistory.org/index.php?option=displaypage&Itemid=735&op=page. Internet; accessed 23 April 2008.

After going through a jaw dropping two plus weeks of watching the greatest athletes in the world do their magic in the London Olympics, it begs the question – How do these guys and gals do it? I mean, really, how much time and effort has gone into their preparation for this lifetime achievement of being an Olympian? Surely, they must have started with they were very young, right?

Thus began many a conversation around our house when watching these extremely talented folks break records in the pool, on the track and many of the other venues at the London games. That’s why we generally have the notion that any elite athlete, be they Olympian or pro, must have been training specifically in that sport since they could barely walk.

Variety is the Spice of Life… for Sports

In this day of kids playing in travel leagues, having personal coaches and spending so much time on one sport, we have to ask ourselves if it makes sense to keep doing this or to encourage kids to play more than one sport.

This is true in sports, as well. Many coaches worth their salt will point to the advantages of playing multiple sports as kids. The variety that playing more than one sport offers a youngster keeps feeding their enthusiasm. Some down time away from a sport helps a child look forward to the other sports they play, and consequently to the original sport, as well.

For example, having kids playing baseball from April through August, and then transitioning into either football or soccer gives them an enthusiasm into both football and soccer.

They love baseball, but knowing that once baseball is done, they get a little ‘mental’ break from that game and really get into their fall sport. They look forward to the transition, to the new challenges, competition and the different social dynamic they will experience, as well.

All of these points contribute to their ability to grow as athletes as well as individuals.

The quickness and aggressive attributes players gain playing football may enhance his defense and base running once baseball rolls around. The footwork a player learns in basketball makes them a better infielder when turning a double play come next summer.

There are mental lessons learned playing multiple sports, as well.

Learning how to play against a bigger, tougher opponent in basketball provides insight into one’s one tenacity, drive and ability to think strategically within the game. Don’t think that translates from sport to sport? Think again.

Different levels and types of competition present the player with multiple opportunities to learn how to work through diversity. These challenges present a unique chance to learn how to use your abilities and talents, both physically and mentally, to get as close to your best performance as possible. It also is a huge confidence builder. Knowing that you were able to hit against a really good pitcher in baseball now starts building your confidence as you face the challenge of blocking the other team’s best defensive lineman in football. Your belief in yourself increases, and enhances your personal self-worth as it pertains to the sports arena, but also as a person.

Success in sports breaks the chains that can keep performance levels locked up.

It also translates into freeing oneself up personally, as well. That is why you will see many stories of well rounded athletes playing multiple sports doing well in the classroom as well as in their professional lives.

There are more and more reports on overuse injuries by kids specializing in one sport, rather than choosing to play in a variety of athletics. There is an entire movement out there to stop overuse injuries, because they have become so prevalent at earlier ages. There is also evidence that playing multiple sports can lower the risk of childhood obesity.

Let’s take it one step farther. Coaches look for competitiveness at the collegiate level. They like the competitiveness that is developed in athletes that play multiple sports. In addition many times they will see an athlete who has been a captain in different sports. This points to the leadership qualities that a player has and contributes to the overall development as a person, which college coaches love.

Take Pete Carroll, head coach of the Seattle Seahawks and former coach of National Championship teams at USC. Coach Carroll pointed to the fact that,

“I want guys that are so special athletically, so competitive that they can compete in more than one [sport] here at USC. It’s really important that guys are well-rounded and just have this tendency for competitiveness that they have to express somewhere.”

Other coaches in different sports echo the same comments. That competitive desire being developed in a young athlete is what drives them to excel in and out of the sports arena.

The variety that playing in multiple sports programs during the year brings, I believe, far outweigh specializing in one sport. Take that variety and enjoy the many benefits that it brings. As an athlete you will gain so much both intrinsically and on the field, court or ice.

1. Most folks know that Americans celebrate a Thanksgiving Day, but they aren’t alone. What event is celebrated in The Virgin Islands on Oct. 25?

A. A Thanksgiving Day to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season

B. A Thanksgiving Day to celebrate the end of the harvest season

C. A Thanksgiving Day to mark the beginning of the harvest season

D. There is no such event except in The QuizQueen’s imagination.

A. A Thanksgiving Day to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season

QQ: The Virgin Islands observe a Thanksgiving Day on Oct. 25 to rejoice in the end of the hurricane season. That is certainly something to celebrate alright!

2. Where did turkeys come from?

A. Turkey

B. Europe

C. South America

D. Antarctica

C. South America

QQ: Turkeys weren’t introduced into Europe from the Spanish colonies in South America until 1523. However, by 1524, turkeys, imported from South America, were eaten at the court of King Henry VIII of England.

3. Thanksgiving is also a legal holiday in Canada. When does it fall?

A. Second Monday in October

B. Second Thursday in October

C. Second Monday in November

D. Second Thursday in November

A. Second Monday in October

QQ: Because Canada is north of the United States, its harvest comes earlier in the year. Accordingly, the Thanksgiving holiday falls earlier in Canada than in the United States. The Canadian Parliament set aside Nov. 6 for annual Thanksgiving observances in 1879. In 1957 the date was shifted to an even earlier day, to the second Monday in October.

4. Who originally domesticated the turkey?

A. The Turks

B. The Mexicans

C. The Chinese

D. The Vulcans

B. The Mexicans

QQ: The turkey was originally domesticated in Mexico. The ocellated turkey is native to the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico and adjacent Guatemala and Belize.

5. What month is National Turkey Lovers’ Month?

A. May

B. June

C. November

D. December

B. June

QQ: Hah, bet lots of people got that one wrong! June is National Turkey Lovers’ Month, after all, June is the month for lovers, isn’t it?

6. Benjamin Franklin, who proposed the turkey as the official United States’ bird, was dismayed when the bald eagle was chosen over the turkey. Why?

A. He loved to eat turkey and wanted everyone to love it, too

B. He thought the turkey much more respectable

C. He said the bald eagle had a bad moral character

D. The turkey was a true native of America

E. All are true

F. None are true

G. A, B, and C are true

H. B, C, and D are true

H. B, C, and D are true

QQ: He may have loved to eat turkey, but after the selection was made, Franklin wrote to his daughter, referring to the eagle’s “bad moral character,” saying, “I wish the bald eagle had not been chosen as the representative of our country! The turkey is a much more respectable bird, and withal a true original native of America.”

7. What Thanksgiving Day image can be traced back to ancient harvest festivals?

A. Candle

B. Cornucopia

C. Pilgrim hat

D. Turkey

B. Cornucopia

QQ: The cornucopia (a horn-shaped basket overflowing with fruits and vegetables) is a typical emblem of Thanksgiving abundance that dates to ancient harvest festivals. Many of the images commonly associated with Thanksgiving are derived from much older traditions of celebrating the autumn harvest.

8. Can turkeys fly?

A. Only the domestic ones

B. Only the wild ones

C. All turkeys can fly

D. No turkeys can fly

B. Only the wild ones

QQ: Domesticated turkeys cannot fly. Wild turkeys can fly for short distances up to 55 miles per hour and can run 20 miles per hour.

9. Although the U.S. is tops when it comes to turkey consumption (who knows if it is Thanksgiving that puts us over the top), what country is a close second?

A. France

B. Italy

C. Germany


A. France

QQ: This was a tough question, because according to the USDA the French, the Italians, the Germans, and the British all follow US consumption of turkey (in that order).

10. Although often linked to Christmas, Kwanzaa is actually more closely tied with which holiday?

A. St. Patrick’s Day

B. Halloween

C. Thanksgiving

D. Valentine’s Day

C. Thanksgiving

QQ: Come on, even if you didn’t know that Kwanzaa was Swahili for “first fruits” this is a Thanksgiving-theme quiz! Kwanzaa has its roots in the ancient African first-fruit harvest celebrations from which it takes its name. However, its modern history begins in 1966 when it was developed by African American scholar and activist Maulana Karenga.

11. When Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin sat down to eat their first meal on the moon, their foil food packets contained what?

A. Roasted turkey and all of the trimmings

B. Spaghetti and meatballs

C. Hot dogs and beans

D. Peanut butter and jelly

A. Roasted turkey and all of the trimmings

QQ: If you got this wrong, refer to the title of the quiz!

12. What Jewish holiday could be associated with Thanksgiving?

A. Shabuoth

B. Passover

C. Hanukah

D. Yom Kippur

A. Shabuoth

QQ: Shabuoth or Shavuoth, also Feast of Weeks or Pentecost, is celebrated in the late spring during the Hebrew month of Sivan, seven weeks after Passover. In biblical times the festival was a thanksgiving for the grain harvest. Later tradition associates the holiday with the giving of the Law on Mount Sinai.

13. Who gobbles in the turkey family?

A. Everyone

B. Only adult turkeys, not chicks

C. Only tom turkeys

D. Only hen turkeys

C. Only tom turkeys

QQ: Only tom turkeys gobble. Hen turkeys make a clicking noise. Click. Click.

14. The custom of watching football games on Thanksgiving Day also evolved during the early decades of the 20th century. Many Americans digest their holiday meal while watching football games on television. Traditionally, which two National Football League (NFL) teams host games on Thanksgiving Day?

A. Detroit Lions and Dallas Cowboys

B. Carolina Panthers and Miami Dolphins

C. Jacksonville Jaguars and Cincinnati Bengals

D. Houston Oilers and Cleveland Browns

A. Detroit Lions and Dallas Cowboys

QQ: High viewership of these holiday games has made football an American Thanksgiving tradition. Yet another retail strike against America! And for your football trivia, The Carolina Panthers, Jacksonville Jaguars, and Houston Oilers could not be part of any long-standing tradition as the Panthers and Jaguars were part of the 1995 expansion of the NFL and the Oilers moved to Tennessee in 1997 to become the Titans.

15. What is the turkey trot?

A. A ragtime dance

B. The gait of a horse

C. A card game

D. The way a turkey runs

A. A ragtime dance

QQ: The turkey trot ragtime dance is characterized by a springy walk with the feet well apart and a swinging up-and-down movement of the shoulders.

Many of us have read the astonishing statistics concerning the effects of TV violence on our children. And we may stand in one of two camps: Television is just a reaction to society — a projection of the way life is. Or television is influencing and encouraging the brutality in this world.

Either way, it can’t be sugar-coated. Violence has always played some role in our society whether it’s between individuals demanding their will or on a larger scale — governments using ruthless force. So in a historical sense, it’s important to understand the impact of violence and what we’ve learned. These historical lessons have their place and their context, but what I’m speaking of is more the glamorizing of violence. Whether it is life imitating art or art imitating life, it doesn’t really matter. Our homes are the havens — the safety net in this world. This is the place where we buoy our kids up — positively uplift them — while teaching and minimizing the effects of outside negative influences. So if we truly do live in a violent world, we can offer some peace to our children — and if it’s more a matter of perspective, then aren’t we focusing on the wrong things?

Let’s look at the disadvantages of too much violence on the TV:

  • Desensitization. Television nowadays is much more realistic than it used to be because of the advancement of special effects and computer animation. Due to the sometimes gratuitous nature, the line between fantasy and reality can be fuzzy. So a humph and nonchalant shrug may be the extent of sympathy when real news of violence is shared. And to go even one step further, children could then be less empathetic to the suffering of those around them.
  • Fear. How do you feel if you’ve watched a program about a child abduction? I know I don’t want my children out of my sight — I turn into a hovering mom. While it’s good to be informed, we need to differentiate between sensationalism and facts. What are the statistics, and the reasonable precautions? If we’re constantly viewing negative input, that’s what we’ll always perceive out in the world, and that’s how people can become riddled with anxiety.
  • Increased Violence. Numerous studies have demonstrated the correlation between increased aggression and increased television viewing of violence. These date back to the 50’s.

Television is not a terrible thing. There are numerous educational programs out there for our children. And if we do our homework, there are decent entertainment shows for our kids. It’s all about balance — even with television viewing. So what are the solutions for us as parents to combat this violence on the TV?

  • Know what our children are watching. Watch a show with them — see what they’re really being exposed to.
  • Set a time limit to television viewing. Don’t let your kids have the TV on continually. Pick a few pre-screened shows, something they can look forward to.
  • Open Communication. Always encourage open communication with your children, and not just about TV programs. If we already have a good relationship with them — they will talk to us about the violence on television, or the difference between reality and fantasy. These kinds of conversations will be more natural and open the doors to your positive influence.
  • Encouragement of other activities. There are many opportunities for our children — from sports to music, to meeting up with neighborhood kids for a soccer game. Encourage these less sedentary activities, there are a multitude of benefits to these activities.

Let’s be parents that are aware and help build strong, well-adapted children that are a positive force in this world.

Football was originally played and devised in the United Kingdom, and then afterwards it is introduced by the British to most of its colonized territories like the African nation South Africa. Few more years and it gained popularity among sports enthusiasts not only in Europe but to almost every country in the world.

Its recent popularity and worldwide acceptance pave the way for the institution of its governing body, the Federation Internationale de Football Association (International Federation of Association Football) which is now the world renamed FIFA. For most of the years FIFA has been the organizer of various football tournaments and implementation of every rules regarding the sport. One of the main football tournaments would be the FIFA World Cup. The FIFA World Cup is held every four years and now on its 19th league. Surely it has a history of non-stopping thrill and excitation all through the world.

The 2010 FIFA championship is currently being held in South Africa and has been participated by the best of all football players of different countries. It concluded last June 11 and is expected to have a heart pounding 2010 World Cup Finals. This year's tournament can be considered as the 2010 finals since the qualification process have already been started and selected from August of 2008 to date, including pre-losses during the 2008 Summer Olympics. Last August 2007 there have already been 204 participating and contending countries from the total members of 208.

This year's 2010 soccer finals is expected to be the most awaited sporting event of the year and is expected to be the most viewed with the sunset of numerous worldwide media coverage and streams, and major information spread. South Africa is the country host of this year's 2010 finals, defeating Morocco and Egypt in the process of bidding. South Africa is said to be the home of many football fans and enthusiasts alike. A lot of football stadium and mostly, the largest ones either in Africa or the World and a vast majority of players abound, from the old and young, professionals or the out of school youth.

This year's 2010 FIFA World Cup finals is a must see event where a lot of enthusiast expectations are present as to which the defending champions, that would be Italy, would have to battle with in the finals. Italy, 2006's FIFA World Cup champion will have to defend its championship title in this year's tournament. Every day, excitement and news all over about the 2010 World Cup Finals is growing and gets even bigger. People from all around the world are flocking to South Africa only not to miss this event. Tickets to the finals, hotel and flights are almost full. Expect a thrilling experience this year with the 2010 World Cup Finals.

The football is just not a game. It is all about passion. The game is loved by billions of its fans who are spread across the globe. This can be witnessed while looking at the packed stadiums. The crazy fans love to support their favorites during the game.

The football jerseys are considered as the most important accessory of this game. The players have to wear these during the game. Apart from this, the fans also love to wear these during the game while supporting their clubs. These are available in wide range of designs and specifications in the market. The manufacturers, as well as leading brands, are offering their collections in the comprehensive range of designs and specifications. The evolution in the fashion industry has also influenced the sports industry. Whatever be the game, the sports persons want to look great on & off the field. The reason behind this is that attractive outfits help in improving the confidence level. The ex-players suggests that the better you look, better will be your performance.

The football jersey manufacturers understand the requirements of the clubs. To cater to their needs, they are offering customized range. Every club has a deep desire to look exclusive at the ground. They want that their teams should have unique identities which help in their branding. For this purpose, the manufacturers are providing distinct features like the team name, logo, etc.

The fans are no less important than the players. They also want to support their teams while putting on the gears in the colors of their favorite teams. For them, the leading brands are bringing forth the standard designs which are created in the exact replica of the designs of some of the most popular teams.

What one should keep in mind while purchasing the collection? The answer is fabric. The game involves tremendous physical agility. The players need outfits which can offer them flexibility during the game. The manufacturers are fully aware of this fact and they use polyester or nylon fabric while manufacturing their range.

The evolution in the field of technology has also influenced the designing and manufacturing of the sports outfits. The designers are relying heavily on the advanced tools to create impeccable motifs on the fabric. In addition to this, the sublimation printing is high in use for the production purpose. This is the most advanced technique of digital printing. In this, the computer-aided designs to get imprinted on the fabric with the use of the transferable paper.