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Conditioning is a word that is used a lot in the fitness industry but what does it really mean to have conditioning? There are those that are ripped from strength conditioning, marathon runners have to go through a type of stamina conditioning and then there is the conditioning that is necessary for fighters and martial artists.

Conditioning can come off as this hard core concept of hard work and training to build your body up so it can perform or endure what the sport demands of it.

And it’s true.

However, that is not the whole picture of what it means to be a conditioned athlete. Building your body and it’s performance potentials is only the outcome associated to having “great conditioning”.

The other half of the definition of conditioning is more about the discipline, the standard and the values that you adopt.

“Great conditioning” is the result of adopting and integrating habits, standards and values that slowly, over time changes and transforms the conditions of the body.

Conditioning isn’t so much about building yourself up but rather more about adopting a specific way of being that will serve you in the long run which is beneficial for the performance and execution of the skills in a given sport or physical activity.

So, how do you integrate a great conditioning ritual? One that will meet your athletic needs based on the sport or physical activity of your choice?

A good place to start is by looking at where your values are placed in your sport. By looking at the components that you already have a natural inclination to favour and value, then you have a platform where you can design for yourself a discipline that you are more than likely to commit to.

If for example you naturally favour cardio, then use that as a base to develop a discipline to condition, not only great cardio but also as a way to condition better form, more strength and greater endurance doing the activity that is the source of cardio. It’s also a great way to develop secondary attributes. If, for instance you typically rely on jogging for cardio but you would like to develop another physical skill or work on some upper body, than you might consider cardio boxing. Or you might want to develop better foot co-ordination and do some skip rope.

By focusing on what you already prefer, you are much more likely to build on it and develop a discipline and from a place of discipline is where conditioning can flow from the best.

Also, using discipline is a powerful way to predispose yourself to growth and improvement in a specific skill or attribute. Once you have established a discipline on a particular practice, then it’s only a matter of pushing yourself and upping the ante in order to improve and refine that conditioning.

Let me leave with one final thought, and that is, when thinking in terms of the type of conditioning you feel you may need for whatever fitness goal that you have, think about what habits you need to adopt and how you need to be in the process of the training rather than what you need to do to reach and achieve a goal to finally arrive at. Chances are that when you arrive at that goal, in order to maintain it, you will need to sustain the conditioning by maintaining the practice that got you there in the first place.

Conditioning is a process.

The Central Line, the red line on London Underground maps, runs across central London.

The line starts from Epping in the north-east and terminates at a) Ealing Broadway in the west and b) West Ruislip in the north-west. The Central line covers a distance of 74km (46 miles) and serves 49 tube stations.

Listed below are some of the 49 tube stations that most tourists are likely to use when they visit London.

Stratford station is the stop where the Olympic Village (London Olympics 2012) is located. You need to change here for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) and stop at Pudding Mill Lane (1 stop from Stratford station) where the Olympic Stadium is located.

Liverpool Street station is one of the main railway stations in London. This is the station where visitors take the train to Stanstead Airport.

Other attractions near Liverpool Street station include the Gherkin Building, Toynbee Hall and the Whitechapel Art Gallery.

Bank station is close to several tourist attractions including Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of the City of London), the Bank of England, The Royal Exchange, Leadenhall Market and the Lloyd’s Building.

Lloyds Building is the home of the insurance institution, Lloyds of London, the world’s leading insurance market.

St Paul’s station is a short walk to St Paul’s Cathedral, the second largest cathedral in the world after St Peter’s Cathedral in Rome.

Other tourist attractions near St Paul’s station include the Museum of London, Millennium Pedestrian Bridge, Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre and the Tate Modern. From the Tate Modern you can take a relaxing walk along the river bank and enjoy the wonderful sights and sounds of London.

Near Chancery Lane station are the Inns of Court, the Royal Courts of Justice, the Yeomanry Museum and the London Silver Vaults (the home to the world’s largest retail collection of fine antique silver).

Stop at Holborn station for Lincoln’s Inn, the British Museum, Sir John Soane’s Museum, The Hunterian Museum, the London School of Economics and the Royal College of Surgeons.

During the year Law students are required to dine “in Hall” of Lincoln’s Inn a certain number of times before they qualify to be “called to the Bar”.

You get off at Tottenham Court Road station if you are visiting the British Museum, the Dominion Theatre and the Central YMCA. Most of the West End theatres and London Chinatown are located in the south of Tottenham Court Road station.

Tottenham Court Road shops are renowned for the sale of electrical goods like televisions and computers.

Oxford Circus station is the centre of the busiest shopping district in London. This is where Oxford Street (running in east-west direction) meets Regent Street (running in north-south direction). Both Oxford Street and Regent Street are very busy shopping streets and that is why most people prefer to stop at Oxford Circus when they come to the West End to shop.

Bond Street station is one stop west of Oxford Street station. Shops in Bond Street stock elegant and expensive designer clothes and accessories. Celebrities from all over the world are often seen shopping in Bond Street.

New Bond Street and South Moulton Street, both streets renowned for elegant and expensive jewellery and watches, are only a short distance away from Bond Street station.

Selfridges Department Store is just a couple of minutes walk from the station.

Marble Arch station is located at the west end of Oxford Street. Opposite Marble Arch station is Park Lane, famous for its 5 star hotels such as the Dorchester Hotel, InterContinental Hotel and Hilton Park Lane. If you walk halfway down Park Lane, you will see the Animal in War Memorial. This memorial is to commemorate the contributions made by animals that serve alongside troops during the war.

Hyde Park is located to the west of Marble Arch station and the Speakers Corner is only less than 5 minutes walk away.

Lancaster Gate station is where you get off if you are visiting the Hyde Park Italian Gardens, the Serpentine, Diana, Princess of Wales Fountain and the Bayswater Road Artists Gallery.

Queensway station is the stop if you are visiting Kensington Palace. You can also start your “Diana, Princess of Wales, Memorial Walk” from Kensington Gardens across the station. This is a 7 mile walk across 4 Royal Parks, 3 Royal Palaces and several popular London landmarks. You just follow the Diana Memorial Walk plaques that are embedded along the route.

Fashionable Notting Hill Gate is renowned for the Notting Hill Gate Carnival. This event is held here annually during the August Bank Holiday and is organised by the Caribbean community. This is a very popular event and each year hundreds of thousands of people converge here to join in the celebrations.

Portobello Road Market is also internationally known and is busiest on Saturdays.

Holland Park is a lovely park with its famous Orangery, Kyoto Garden and open air theatre.

Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, is now a ruin, having been destroyed by bombs during World War II.

Next to Shepherd’s Bush station is the Westfield Shopping Centre with more than 300 shops under one roof and is currently the largest urban shopping complex in Europe.

White City station. Here you can visit the BBC Television Centre and join its tours. Nearby is Loftus Road Stadium, home of Queens Park Rangers Football Club and the London Wasps Rugby Club.

Apart from Stratford station (zone 3) and Holland Park, Shepherd’s Bush and White City stations (zone 2), all the other Central line stations listed above are in zone 1. So if you are not planning to visit these stations, you only need to buy a 1-day Travelcard for zone 1. That will give you unlimited travel for a day in zone 1 by bus as well as by tube.

From a hotel room in Central Jakarta, Indonesia news agency Pena’s final report describes the development of the tobacco industry today. This report in the form of 65 pages thick magazine with the headline on the front page “Hypocrisy & Myths Behind the Tobacco Industry”.

Pena Indonesia claims this report is based on investigative reports on various search tobacco industry documents. Also includes two CD or compact disk that contains thousands of documents multinational industries in Indonesia. As the documents from British American Tobacco or BAT, Philips Morris and others.

The workshop was attended among journalists and health activists. Aim to provide insight into the existence of secret documents related to the coming of the giants of the world tobacco industry and its relationship with Indonesia.

This workshop also received support from the world health agency WHO’s Indonesia representative, IAKMI-Public Health Specialist Association of Indonesia and SEATCA-The Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance.

Pena Indonesia to work for three months and glared through the computer. Digging thousands of documents online from seven giant cigarette recorded in the period 1960 until the early 2000s. At least there are about 28,000 of thousands more documents from British American Tobacco or BAT Indonesia is stored in digital libraries of the University of California, San Francisco, United States.

Walk through also take place in the site’s Legacy Tobacco Documents Library that contains an internal document of Philips Morris, RJ Reynolds, Lorillard and Brown & Williamson. The result is reported and written by Farid Gaban and Alfian Hamzah from Pena Indonesia news agency and Mardiyah Chamim of Tempo Magazine. Coverage and support in the form of grant funding from Essential Action Global Partnership for Tobacco Control, based in Washington.

This story began in 1998. This year may be spelled out in the most unfortunate for the cigarette industry in America. Attorney General State of Minnesota, United States, Hubert Humphrey III blew the whistle loud warning to cigarette industry. Attorney General asked the seven smoking industry giants to open all their secret documents to the public. Aim to find the truth.

These documents are internal documents containing various letters to the authorities, scientists, media tricks to boost the tobacco business. Seven giant companies, among others, from Philip Morris Incorporated, RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company, British American Tobacco (BAT), Brown and Williamson, the Ligget Group and The Tobacco Institute and The Council for Tobacco Research and the Lorillard Tobacco Company.

American courts have six million documents with 35 million pages. Each page is a seal and code number of lawyers the industry to ensure its authenticity. The court also requires the tobacco industry parties in order to deposit the documents until the year 2008.

While in England, the mountains of British American Tobacco documents typically stored in the warehouse Guilford, Surrey, England. BAT archiving online documents is done by the University of California, San Francisco, United States.

There are seven million documents in the form of scanned documents. And spent about four years to make efforts for their hard work. Unfortunately, according to Duncan Cambell, an American investigative journalist who helped search smoking industry documents, the claim that there are about 181 file that contains thousands of pages of documents had been lost. These missing documents are not clear and it is possible rimbanya associated with regions of other countries, like Indonesia.

One of the investigations of this American smoking industry had contrived movie “The Insider” that tell about the search an American television journalist uncover fraud in the levels toxins. Media in the United States to encourage and influence the people that smoking is a threat. Cigarettes became citizen issues and then encouraging the birth of a strict smoking regulations and basic.

Tobacco industry should be controlled and strictly controlled. For owners in the U.S. tobacco industry is not a condition of a good climate. And ask the American government to the strict rules that only apply in the United States alone. And does not apply to international business networks in different parts of other countries. Post-1998 invasion was in progress. And objectives that cigarette owners are the countries that enter the third country groups.

How to countries in the region, especially Indonesia in association with the document? Indonesia belonged to a third country is not it? Indonesia is a land tender and a haven for the global tobacco industry of the world. Tobacco industry in Indonesia incarnate and was like a “kingdom” of its own. He played many roles and automatic movements do not get a lot of obstacles and barriers.

Either statutory, economic, social to the political path. The smoking industry in Indonesia grew rapidly and slippery. Borrowing the term’s largest daily newspaper in West Java, the People’s Mind, the tobacco industry as “Spreads and entrenched”. Not a lot of media in Indonesia to criticism, preaching especially to make a profound statement relating cigarette industry is. Indonesia received with open field every movement, ideas, and the influence of the tobacco industry in developing its business extensively.

We can learn many things from the tobacco industry documents. Learn how they work, determine the position and influence policy makers, economic, media until the “buy-sell” research. The document gives a clear and detailed. We just need to work hard, carefully detailing, and built of sheets of documents to obtain a complete picture of the building of the world tobacco industry as a whole.

According to the Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA)-based institutions in Thailand, in its report Profiting from Death: Exposing the Tobacco Industry Tactics in ASEAN Countries, October 2007, explained that until now the region cigarette consumption of about 50 per cent of world tobacco consumption. And Asia considered as an important market future of the world tobacco industry.

While 10 countries joined to the ASEAN approximately 31 percent or 125.8 million ASEAN youth population are smokers. Or about 10 percent-1, 25 billion-from the number of young smokers smokers of the world continue to increase and the country joined ASEAN contributed to the death rate from smoking as much as 20 percent!

SEATCA is a partnership network of state agencies that merged into the ASEAN which undertakes research, advocacy and capacity building in each of its members. SEATCA work and build advocacy mission to its members who have made ratification of the WHO convention, tobacco control over the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) – including Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vietnam. While Indonesia is the only country in Asia which until this moment has not ratified these conventions.

WHO convention on tobacco control is essential to apply in the cigarette industry in Indonesia. This Convention will regulate and control the tobacco industry. There are about 38 articles in the convention and aims to improve the quality of global health.

Business development to move the tobacco industry is not in the form of a single strategic one. Business strategy will follow the situation in each area of development. He worked to organize and determine the target groups, facilitate the political policies that support good business that comes from the government or the people’s representatives, to work with anyone to make promotional efforts and form a fully market.

Tobacco industry to build its image through a variety of ways. From the ad creates a direct communication with consumers by placing cigarette products through billboards, print ads and electronic media, posters, accessories, colors and logo outlets that causes the image of tobacco products.

Promotional activities by distributing free cigarette samples, offers coupons, contests, lotteries, tickets to watch sports games and racing, music concerts, fund a film, talk shows, street party to its activities in the form of corporate social responsibility or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR ) which supports scholarships, environmental aid projects and other activities under the company name or the name of the tobacco industry products. Including providing scholarships to journalists and school children are achievers.

SEATCA survey research on the control status of the rules about promotion, advertising, CSR and sponsorship in seven ASEAN countries in 2007. Including in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Five countries have quite strict rules to regulate the issue ads, prmosi, sponsorship and CSR.

These five countries include Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand. Of these five countries, Thailand has very strict rules against tobacco industry and conduct strict limits. Two of the most free, no rules, no control and no restrictions are Cambodia and Indonesia!

Cambodia and Indonesia is a paradise for the tobacco industry. The two countries are relatively poor country is not it? Indonesia is estimated to have poverty rates of 49 percent with the cost of living average of two dollars per day for America. Both do not have rules and restrictions governing tobacco control issues closely.

For the tobacco industry is the most profitable opportunities. Cigarette industry has any power and capital to boost its business and profit maximization. The industry offers a dream potion and promotional advertising to the public to climb out of poverty.

And offer words suggestive ads and interesting success. This is a dream and the dream for all people. Tobacco industry’s success by offering a cigarette. Giving up tobacco are one of the main way for each person to climb out of poverty and live success quickly.

Poverty became the land for profit. And the industry was well aware of this condition. Poverty, lack of regional representation and the role of government, lack of political consciousness, and the role of the media who are helpless in cigarette advertising.

AC Nielsen figures show the year 2006 tobacco sector advertising expenditure of Rp 1.6 trillion. Which moron media would lose and the offer of money for it? One media in Indonesia may be conscious and choose not to accept tobacco ads. But the question is the extent to which the power of this medium will survive? And refrain from the onslaught of cigarette advertising.

Cigarettes became the main consumption for the poor. Cigarette consumption throughout the year reached 225 billion sticks. Cigarettes have a 4000 toxic chemicals. And cigarettes are the leading cause of cancer-causing disease, heart and other diseases that cause death in the long run. Every year people die as indicated by the cigarette causes as many as 400 thousand in Indonesia!

The number of smokers Indonesia increased sharply. Based on the national economic survey Statistic The Central Bureau in the period 2001-2004, there has been surge in novice smokers and under the age of 10 years rose 0.4 percent to 2.8 percent. National Commission on Child Protection also get a number that 90 percent of teenagers smoke because of advertising Indonesia. Teenagers became the main target for the tobacco industry.

This figure is worrying, and then in February 2007 several members of the legislature moved to make some rules to restrict smoking. These rules are expected to restrict, control and restrict tobacco issues involving the activities of young children. This rule also requires an increase in cigarette excise tax by 60 percent to minimize people buy cigarettes. And encouraged to expand research on the impact of smoking on health.

In 1999, Indonesia has issued Government Regulation 81 / 1999 concerning Security Cigarettes For Health, Government Regulation 38/1999 on Procedures for the Tobacco Product Advertising Media and Government Regulation 19/2003 regarding the obligations of cigarette manufacturers to include warnings on product packaging.

Indonesia also benefited from this condition. From the cigarette industry sector contribution in the form of tax revenue amounting to Rp 38.5 trillion last year. And this year is expected to increase to Rp 42 trillion.

Cigarette business in Indonesia is very sweet. Two Indonesian families who do business in the ranks of cigarettes in the world’s richest list of Forbes Magazine. Rachman Halim family including Gudang Garam owners with assets of U.S. $ 1.9 billion and occupies 538 warning. Budi Hartono and family of the order of Djarum 664 with assets of U.S. $ 1.5 billion.

Indonesia’s cigarette tax mostly cheap compared with other countries. Australia, Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore set the cigarette tax by 70 percent. While in Indonesia, just set the highest cigarette tax by 40 percent. With this tax rate retail price of cigarettes in Indonesia is the fifth of the price compared to the price of cigarettes in Malaysia.

The price of cheap cigarettes is boosting consumer smokers in Indonesia. Access to cigarettes is very easy. Based on the last survey the WHO and the American Cancer Society, about 70 percent of Indonesian smokers are male. And 3 percent of women smokers Indonesia.

Indonesia plays a dual role misleading. One side of the income he earned from cigarette but on the other hand many of Indonesia will lose its human resources because of damage caused by cigarettes. But health insurance companies in Indonesia which would warranty his client about the consequences of smoking?

Anti-smoking campaign world continues to strengthen. Rich countries and educated aware of the dangers from smoking. Anti-smoking movement harder and try to campaign on this issue at the level of the global movement. Federation of Football Association (FIFA) and even signed an agreement with WHO to regulate and prohibit tobacco sponsorship in the football field.

MTV supports anti-smoking campaign and urged teenagers not to smoke. Countries in Europe and other Asian and ratify the convention followed tobacco control (FCTC).

But resistance to the cigarette industry in Indonesia is still very weak. Anti-smoking movement both from citizens, communities, doctors, including from the media yet strong. WHO Indonesia chose a few names of artists and athletes for the national sports anti-smoking campaign. Among tennis champion Angelique Widjaja, bodybuilder Ade Rai, and model Tracy Trinita.

But not enough to represent all three and move the people of Indonesia to establish anti-smoking movement. Indonesia needs a great figure and steady for anti-smoking movement. Not just a slogan anti-smoking course. But the anti-smoking movement is broad and strategic.

In short, the anti-smoking movement in Indonesia is still classified as impotent. He needs power and a strong force to stem the solid and aggressive opposition from the tobacco industry. And the journalist is to write the movement and continue to oversee the expansion of logging from the cigarette industry.

Advertising and propaganda war going on in the struggle of black smoke world. And Indonesia is a powerful combat areas to map the world of today’s global cigarette. This is also related to the local cigarette industry in Indonesia. As the local industry in the Spirit, Malang, Jember and Kediri. Local cigarette industry in Indonesia has also played an important role in influencing the smoking community.

In Indonesia, known as clove cigarettes while smoking outside the product known as white smoke. Local cigarette industry is small kings tobacco and many are in Java. Expansion of the world tobacco industry bosses squirm with aggressive and strong and try to master the current market share. White cigarettes clove cigarettes fight.

Who is most powerful? The smoking industry to build myths, facts and misleading research about smoking. And we know that the victims of the battle is the health of everyday citizens will decline. Indonesia and countries allow their citizens health downfall.

The facts of the dangers of cigarettes and dark tobacco industry’s propaganda is clear. Cigarettes are not for compromise but should be controlled and regulated by the government and the legislature. Indonesian society should be aware that cigarettes are now become an alarming epidemic.

The event will end in 2007 Indonesia was elected to conduct a global discussion about global warming. Took place in December in Bali. Global discussions is very important to discuss and take strategic steps related to the issue of global warming and the environment. Indonesia is also classified as bad in the environmental area.

Indonesia, including the red-prone areas in environmental issues such as illegal logging, mining, industrial pollution and waste emissions from motor vehicles. This global discussion will produce decisions and policies are very important. The result will encourage each state leaders and citizens to support and implement strategic measures to curb global warming today.

I was shocked when he read a daily newspaper, the National Journal. At the bottom of the column main page newspaper ads plastered on the implementation of a global warming in Bali later. With a dominant ads with light green color close to the color icon environmental issues.

This print ad includes a statement or countdown days in December 2007. These ads also put the name of a cigarette company, Sampoerna and have the word “Green” which could also be interpreted to refer to one of the main products of the Sampoerna cigarette.

I am sad to see the discussion of global warming will have to obtain sponsorship from the tobacco industry. The business and its profits are the majority coming from Indonesia’s poor. Perhaps the sadness I continue to dissolve and be a voice lost and forgotten in the noisy turmoil of global warming event later.

This should be an important note, the mirror itself and becomes a question of us all. Environmental issues are common issues. He departed from his conscience and our common sense. What is worthy of global warming event comes from a tobacco company? Cigarettes, however, the toxin and one of the main causes of death. Is not nothing wrong that the global warming program would come from the tobacco industry?

A pile of tobacco industry internal documents they provided a clear answer. Problem tactics, plans, strategies, political lobbying and build awareness about the error and dirty cigarettes.

I am very sorry critical discussion of global warming there are stains and thorns. This becomes a wedge and a slap on the cliches of the world. As if life and life is going on and started from a cigarette.

Cigarette slogan is not lip service. And strength in the cigarette industry in Indonesia indicate that fact. And this is not true. Tobacco industry is seen to make traps and myths. Cigarettes are an important issue of humanity. Life of the cigarette world full of compromise power, deceit and dark strategy.

And it is probably true in the world struggle of cigarettes, as he had been written by Ben Jonson long ago in The Alchemist (The Alchemist) that “Alchemy was a kind of game, Like a card trick, to deceive man, with great charm”.

The National Council of Education, Research and Training (NCERT) distribute textbooks to students at the primary and secondary level. These books are highly useful for CBSE students and here are six reasons for teachers recommending them.

Clear concepts

To get good marks in examinations, it is important for students to have a clear concept about a subject and its related topics. Highly qualified teachers with years of teaching experience in various schools and colleges write CBSE NCERT books. The concepts are explained in a clear and concise way that gives students correct and accurate information. Worked examples,

info graphics and formulas Follow each topic for students to have a solid grasp on the subject.

Special focus on essential topics

There is a special focus on essential topics in CBSE NCERT books. Based on the syllabus, these topics are covered in details. It helps students in their preparation and aids them to score well. These books highlight important topics of each chapter in different subsections with multiple examples and there is no room for any confusion.

Improve self-confidence

Another primary reason behind the recommendation of these books is that it improves the self-confidence of students. Tough analytical problems are explained in a lucid manner with diagrams and step-by-step procedure. There are vital questions in the form of fill in the blanks, match the following and one-word answers at the end of every chapter. With a little guidance, one can easily answer difficult questions during examination.

Platform for competitive exams

These books act as a platform for competitive exams like JEE Mains, AIPMT, NEET and others. For subjects like Mathematics, sums from the above-mentioned competitive exams are added to help students prepare beyond board examinations. In fact, a number of questions in competitive exams are directly picked from these books. Students need not buy additional books if they kindly follow CBSE NCERT books.

Easy and simple language

Experts write these books in an easy language after an extended research. With simple language, it becomes easier for students to understand a subject and its various chapters. They save a lot of time and allow one to assist complex topics easily.

Incorporate the latest syllabus

Another major reason for teachers to recommend these books is that they incorporated the latest syllabus prepared by CBSE. The books are upgraded from time to time with the latest information that helps one to remain ahead in the competition. As these books strictly adhere to the CBSE curriculum, students can easily answer any question asked in board examinations.

Mifare cards comply with ISO/IEC 14443, a four-part international standard for contactless Smart Cards operating at 13.56 MHz in close proximity with a reader antenna. Just like other Proximity Integrated Circuit Cards (PICC), Mifare cards operate within approximately 10 cm of the reader antenna.

Working Mechanism

Mifares have typically two parts, an antenna for sending and receiving information (in form of signals) and an integrated circuit (IC) that processes and stores information. The IC contains a memory that is divided into segments and blocks with security mechanisms for access control. A user is required to show the Mifare tag near the Mifare reader, a distance not longer than 10 cm. A connection is established between the card and the reader, then the card sends a code that identifies the type of card selected. The communication between the card and the reader is highly secured through encryption.

How secure are Mifare cards?

– Mifare cards employ 3 pass security that thwarts relay attacks

– Access to data in each sector is protected with a 48-bit key

– Transmission between Mifare chip and the reader is encrypted

– The card is not affected by harsh environmental factors such as dust


Mifare Classic – features a storage of 1024 bytes (for the 1k variant), and has been used by among other devices, Samsung smartphones that feature NXP NFC controller chips

Mifare Ultralight and MIFARE Ultralight EV1- has only 512 bytes, and feature no cryptographic security (encryption). Generally used for disposable tickets.

Mifare Ultralight C – low cost, suitable for disposable tickets, but abit secure due to some level of security.

Mifare DESFire – more secure than Mifare classic, and features crypto accelerator for faster transactions

Mifare DESFire EV1 – launched in 2006, has support for random ID and 128 bit encryption standard

Mifare Plus – a replacement for Mifare classic, hence offers more secure, and can easily been upgraded to Mifare plus x

Benefits of Mifare Cards

– High speed Transactions – the read range of up to 10 cm increases the convenience of touch-and- go experience for users

– Increased security – Secure encryption during transmission and storage of information prevents unauthorized access to information stored on the card. This makes it really difficult to copy a Mifare card

Mifare cards are capable of handling up to 15 applications. The user therefore does not need multiple cards for multiple purposes, one card can effectively handle all his applications.

– Increased efficiency and reduced cost – increased throughput by decreasing check-out times, reducing costs of cash handling and processing.

– Multi interface – some Mifare cards have support for both non contactless and contact interface, giving the user the ultimate convenience of duo interface.

– Improved customer experience – simplifying the purchases, enhancing customer convenience

Application areas of Mifare cards

Event ticketing – These cards are widely used in ticketing events, giving access entrance to stadiums, exhibitions and leisure parks. For instance, Mifare Ultralight cards have been used in events such as football worldcup.

Public transport- The transport sector has really been revolutionized by Mifare cards. Due to their multi-application feature, tourists can conveniently purchase tickets to different destinations or access public transport services.

Loyalty – Mifare users can earn points and great discounts with continued use of these cards for payment purposes. Loyalty points can then be accumulated and stored in the card for offline earning and spending.

In Financial payments – Card owners enjoy the benefits of speedy and secure payments in hotels, stores, malls etc. users can also enjoy easy fueling regulation, either by time of the day or day of the week.

Access card – Mifare cards may feature secure employee badges for convenient and secure access to workplace. Store passwords in the card, giving the user guaranteed authorized access to consumer and corporate data. Logical access is also possible, giving the user secure access to computer networks, data files and software.

Gaming – NFC compatibility with NFC enabled devices enables the card holder to seamlessly integrate and exchange information such as gaming data between the card and the device. Gaming scores, credits and characters are thus securely stored in the card.

Due to their reduced transaction time, minimal chances of fraud and increased security, Mifare cards have become more important in transit programs, and have rapidly gained favor with more financial payment agencies and associations across the globe.

Beach soccer first started in Brazil and has quickly grown to be an international game. Beach soccer has been played for many years without rules until 1992 when they were distributed. The very first professional beach soccer competition took place at Miami Beach. The first televised competition was in 1994. Since it has been televised beach football has become one of the most watched sports around the world.

The rules of beach football are similar to association football accept there are no corners given instead there are only throw-ins or kick-ins.

The basic rules of beach football are shown below.


Each team consists of five players, including the goalkeeper and an unlimited amount of substitutions. Throw-ins and kick-ins mean the pace and flow of the game is much higher than regular football. Shoes are not allowed, although ankle guards are permitted. Goal kicks are taken by the goalie using his hands to throw the ball in.

Match length

A game lasts thirty six minutes and is split up into three twelve-minute periods. Every match is won by one team, with the game going into three minutes of extra time, followed by a penalty shootout if the score is still level after normal time. Unlike association football, penalty kicks are decided by sudden death rules.

Referees and Discipline

There are three referees in charge of the match, two on the pitch and one off who controls the team’s benches. Any fouls committed lead to a free kick on goal which has to be taken by the player who was fouled unless awarded for deliberate handling. As in association football yellow and red cards can be issued. However unlike association football, when a player receives a yellow card they must leave the pitch for two minutes and the team must play with four players for that time. When a player receives a red card, he is dismissed from the game entirely.

Is it me or has Wale really out shined a lot of Rap artist by keeping real lyrical content with meaning in all his music? For me, Wale deserves 5 stars and joins the ranks of OutKast, Common, Nas, Lupe Fiasco, Jay Z and many more, for keeping his lyrical flow moving, thought-provoking and current with today’s hottest beats on all his tracks. Follow me as I dissect the lyrics to the latest release from his much-anticipated 3rd album “The Gifted” which has already climbed up the charts with the hit “Bad” featuring Tiara Thomas.

Refreshingly enough this is not another rap song about money, sex or cars in the bold & blatant fashion that we’ve become accustom too hearing on the radio. Wale drops lyrics about his past, present & future in a way that makes you think about every word, acronym and its meaning.

In the 1st verse, Wale speaks of “studying at UDC” which stands for the University of District of Columbia; a community college in Washington DC. I didn’t find any record of Wale attending the school but I’m sure he knows some guy who attends or went there in the past. Guess Wale was right when he said “You gon’ need more than Wikipedia to get to me” cause according to Wikipedia Wale attended Robert Morris University and Virginia State University on football scholarships, then transferred to Bowie State University.

Next Wale drops more acronyms about his past. “PG to Mo County bet they all know ‘bout me” speaks about counties that Wale grew up around; Prince George & Montgomery counties in D.C.

In Wale’s line “Having dinner with Leonsis I’m dreaming to own” drops the hint that he is a loyal fan to his hometown basketball team the Washington Wizards own my Ted Leonsis and it also hints at his ambition to branch out into the business world of franchise ownership some day. Looks like Wale might be on your heels Jay Z.

All obvious dissection aside, the heart of the songs speaks of Wale’s disappointment in the “Love you Hate you” attitude that comes with success and fame. Lines like “Ain’t no love in the heart of the city is what they tell me” and “Listen when you get the keys it’s seldom you don’t get the beef” speaks about the fact that with fame comes friends and foes. One minute everyone is happy that you’re at the top then the next minute they’re trying to pull you down. The most profound verse in the hit to me is “I lost a lot of friends and none of them dead. When I was on my way up, why you ain’t see the stairs” which speaks of the jealousy from people in his past and that may have that “help a brotha out” attitude now that Wale is famous. Then the line “How could you blame us envy? We do the same thing for a living” speaks of the present envy he deals with from rappers in the industry today that want to beef or pull Wale down just so they can come up.

I must admit that I did not follow Wale’s mix tape era but it seems that he has been consistent with his lyrical content from day one. I honestly thought he would get pulled into the “record label money-making formula” like most artist do when they join a major record label, but Wale has stuck to his guns on having creative control over what he writes and what’s released. This determination brought Wale to Rick Ross’ Maybach Music Group in 2011 and he’s been dropping hits every since.

Lyrics from the heart have always been hit makers but the industry has a formula too; drugs, sex & money which move CD’s off the shelf, but they lyrical content makes most of these types hits fade into the background quickly and easily. It’s funny how the more things change the more they stay the same. As Hip Hop & Rap births and buries new artist everyday, its good to see Wale keep his heart and soul intact while walking through the mire, muck & clay of this rap game that pits popularity and record sales against lyrical content and enlightenment. When Wale says “I’m tryna redefine the culture, renovate the soul” I get it. Wale is making music that’s here to stay.

My hat’s off to you Wale! Keep you head up, your lyrics tight and God on your side. Your line, “Lord Father if I opted to follow them, my heart would tear from my dreams let me know that you here!” is heard loud and clear. Peace and Blessings to you Wale.

This has been a Monae Music Moment. Til next time! Peace!

It is August. It is summer. It is hot, and it is kick-off time across the country as pre-season football practice begins. Players will expect to get hot and sweaty, as their coaches attempt to whip them into shape. However a combination of hot / humid weather, tough conditioning drills and players unaccustomed to practicing in the heat, can make August a deadly and dangerous month.

Despite all the warnings, the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reports that 24 football players (19 high school, 3 college and 2 professional) have died from heatstroke since 1995.

The main problem associated with exercising in the hot weather is the water loss through sweating. However drinking water is simply not enough. In extremely hot weather the body will sweat at a rate faster than water can be absorbed into the system. So how can we reduce the amount of sweating, while at the same time help the body to regulate its core body temperature?

The answer is the Arctic Heat Body Cooling Vest. A lightweight cool vest which will not only help to protect athletes from heat related illness, but it will also allow athletes to work harder for longer.

The Arctic Heat cooling vest was originally developed for football players in Australia and it now used by International teams in every other major football code in the world. Rugby League, Rugby Union, Soccer and Australian Rules Football all use the cooling vest to protect their athletes and to improve their performance. It was also used at the Athens Olympics by all the major sporting countries, including many of the USA teams. The military in Iraq are even using the Arctic Heat cooling vests.

"The Arctic Heat Vest, designed for football, will legally improve performance and will also help protect an athlete's health," said Dr John Surie, President of Arctic Heat USA.

The ice cold cooling vest can be worn underneath playing uniforms, it can be used as a pre-cooling device before conditioning drills, and it can be used as a recovery tool in between or after sessions.

Yet enquiries from local football teams have so far been limited. "There seems to be a different mentality in football that you have to run players hard and make them sweat, in order to toughen them up. We believe it is better to cool down and fire up athletes. agree with us, "said Dean Sainsbury from the Arctic Heat company.

Arctic Heat has also developed a range of unique cooling blankets and cooling caps which can be used to immediately treat players who have overheated. "The cooling caps can be used during a game to cool players down. When they come to the bench they can remove their helmets, put the cool cap on, and cool down," said Dr Surie.

The lightweight Arctic Heat Cooling Vest uses a two stage cooling process. The vests contain a gel-like substance that can be frozen or chilled. The cooling vests are manufactured using Woolmark's Sportwool, a special body cooling fabric which incorporates Vapor Management Technology, helping to wick moisture away from the skin, allowing the user to keep dry.

Here is a list of creative and thoughtful, but inexpensive gift ideas to let your junior bridesmaids know how appreciative you are that they are a part of your most special day.

Glamour girls

If any of your junior bridesmaids are budding beauty queens, find a cute cosmetic bag that matches the color of their dresses and fill it with plenty of fun goodies. Brushes and comb sets, hair accessories like barrettes and ponytail holders, age-appropriate make-up, and manicure supplies will delight any girl and give her everything she needs to gussy up for the big day.

Glittering gifts

Faux diamonds can be a young girl’s best friend. Fill a fancy bag full of glittery trinkets, baubles, jeweled barrettes, toe rings, bracelets, necklaces, and rings. For an extra added touch, include a jewelry making kit complete with beads, wire, earring backs, and clasps so she can create her own stunning fashions.

Craft bag

If your junior bridesmaid is the creative type, fill a bag or basket chock full of craft supplies. Coloring books, sketch pads, canvas, crayons, magic markers, colored pencils, paint sets, pastels, and paintbrushes will surely be welcomed.

Book smarts

Fill a basket with some classic books, bookmarks, night lights, and gift certificates to book stores for a special gift that will let your bookworm know how much she means to you.

The sporting life

If your junior bridesmaid is interested in sports, find out just what she’s into and surprise her with a bag filled with appropriate accessories. A personalized gym bag filled with items like sweat socks, jogging suits, and miniature soccer balls are sure to please the athletic bridesmaid.

The great outdoors

If any of the junior bridesmaids in your wedding party are nature lovers, create a special gift that incorporates their love of the outdoors. Whether she’s a camper, a Girl Scout, or just interested in gardening, you can fill a planter or duffle bag with things like camping supplies, gardening tools, seed packets, pots, and planters to create a fun nature-themed gift.

Slumber party

There’s nary a young girl who doesn’t love a slumber party. Create a basket filled with pajama’s, slippers, hot cocoa, popcorn, games, comfy socks, or even a nice sheet set or blanket. She’ll be the hit of the next slumber party and be thankful for your thoughtfulness.

Sweet tooth

Create a basket of delectable goodies that will satisfy anyone’s sweet tooth. The possibilities are endless, and if you happen to know the junior bridesmaid well enough, you can always find out what their favorite candies are and build a treat basket around them.

Gift certificates

If you aren’t sure what your bridesmaids hobbies are or what they may like to do, gift cards are the best way to go. Instead of handing over a plain, boring envelope, put the gift cards in a small basket and fill it with generic items such as candy, lip gloss, pens, pencils or notepads.

The though behind Blackburn Rovers Football Club came from a gentleman named John Lewis who was born 1855 in Market Drayton. The gifts he brought to football began in his days as a player and later he came to be known as one of the best referees in the country, presiding over several FA Cup finals.

November the 5th, 1875, saw Lewis and other gentlemen, notably Author Constantine arrange a meeting at the Leger Hotel in Blackburn where they discussed and concluded that they would establish a Football Club with the title Blackburn Rovers. The city already had a strong association with the game with existing clubs such as Blackburn Park Road FC and Blackburn Olympic FC. Their games were initially played at a place called Church in Lancashire as they had no ground of their own. This changed in mid 1877 when the club leased farmland at Oozehead close to Preston New Road.

This new ground itself was simplistic with its make shift turf and wooden planks to cover the heavy water logged; almost a small pool, in the centre of the playing field but it did generate a small income for the club with the ability to be able to charge a fee for the pleasure of been a spectator. Later Rovers leased a more suitable ground from the East Lancashire Cricket Club. Their debut match at Alexandra Meadows was played against Partick Thistle which they won 2-1 partially thanks to the football gifts of Richard Birtwistle who scored both goals for Rovers.

Blackburn Rovers first entry to the FA Cup came in November 1879 and got to off to a great start when they beat Tyne Football Club 5-1 in their opening game. Later in the 3rd round they received a humiliating defeat at the hands of Nottingham Forrest losing 6-0. During these times Rovers had out-grew their present ground and certainly were the largest club in the area. With this they did seek a larger venue and settled on one in Leamington Street which they altered and refurbished to make way for extra seating needed to cope with the current demand on visitors to their games.

One that nearly made it in the history books for Blackburn Rovers FC came in 1882 when they reached the final of the FA Cup and were up against the Old Etonians. However, the football gifts of the Etonians proved just a little too strong and Rovers lost 1-0. The following year the club were in no such form and only managed the 2nd round before being knocked out by Darwen 1-0 and to rub salt in the wound local rivals Blackburn Olympic went on to win the FA Cup.

Under new manager Thomas Mitchell they were victorious the season after when the beat Queens Park FC in the final 2-1 and again the following year beating the same club 2-0. And in fine form they once more won the FA Cup the next year this time beating West Bromwich Albion and in doing so were awarded a Silver Shield from the FA for their treble success. Blackburn’s form did see a dip from the previous years and were subsequently knocked out of the FA Cup in the 2nd round by Renton the year after but they did win it again 1890 when the gifts of William Townley scored 3 and Rovers went on to crush Sheffield Wednesday 6-1 and also 1890/91 season with a 3-1 win over Notts County FC, bringing Rovers FA Cup tally to a staggering five. During this time Blackburn purchased Ewood Park and spent, in respect of today a massive £1000 on extras and alterations.

After WW2 Rovers time in Division 1 came to end and for the next decade the club remained in Division 2 until making their way back to Division 1 in 1958. The silverware that they had been accustomed to in the early part of the century no longer existed, however they did regularly finish mid table. 1960, with the gifts of Scotsman Dally Duncan in charge they once again came close to another FA Cup trophy but were denied it in the final by Wolverhampton Wanderers losing 3-0. The 1970’s were not really a good period in the history pages for Rovers, spending the majority of the time between Division 2 and 3.

Their turn around in fortunes came when a Mr Jack Walker took control of Rovers in 1990. Walker had made his millions in the steel industry that he inherited from his family. His biggest pay day came when British Steel paid him £360 million for his company in 1990. The manager of Blackburn at the time, Don Mackay was sacked when Walker persuaded the football gifts of Kenny Dalglish to come out of retirement and manage the club. Dalglish soon made new signings and improvements started to take shape and were becoming apparent as Rovers climbed the table.

At one stage they were the only clear winners of Division 2 but it ended slightly different as they had a disastrous losing run and only just managed to grab a play off place. Meeting Leicester in the final at Wembley they booked their place in the new Premiership League, beating Leicester 1-0. It had been 25 years since Blackburn Rovers FC had played in the top flight of English football.

Their largest pay out for a player that broke all English Football records at the time came when they brought the 22 year old gifts of Alan Shearer from Southampton in 1992. Other quality signings were made like Chelsea’s Graeme Le Saux and striker Kevin Gallacher from Coventry. The club enjoyed a fantastic Premiership season in 1993/94 when they managed to finish the table in 2nd place behind Manchester United. Their record transfer fee in 1992 would also be broken this season when they paid £5 million for striker Chris Sutton from Norwich City.

1994/95 season saw Rovers in close rivalry with Manchester United for the Premiership title. It was neck and neck towards the end of season and having lost to Liverpool the club thought United had taken the title but they only managed a 1-1 draw with West Ham which made Rovers Premiership Champions. Later Dalglish would become Director of Football for the club and Alan Shearer had proved he was worth every penny that Blackburn had paid for him by scoring over 30 goals in 3 consecutive seasons, a record in itself. In 1996 the football gifts of Shearer was sold to Newcastle United for a world record transfer fee of £15 million.

The good times for Rovers were soon becoming the bad times when they ended the 1998/99 bottom of the tables and found themselves in Division 1. Jack Walker sadly died in 2000 at the age of 71 and in remembrance a statue was placed at Ewood Park. Blackburn Rovers FC is still owned by the family. They did achieve promotion back to the Premiership in the 2000/01 season and dedicated it to the late Jack Walker.

The 2004/05 saw Mark Hughes take the managers post at Blackburn Rovers and with it a more secure solid club. Hughes signed gifts such as Aaron Mokoena and Newcastle United’s Craig Bellamy and steered Rovers to a 6th place finish in the 2005/06. In addition the club earned a place in the UEFA Cup the following year.

Hughes left for Manchester City in May 2008 giving Paul Ince a short spell in the job. With poor results and 11 games on the bounce without a win he was sacked on December 16th and to be replaced by Sam Allardyce on a 3 year contract. Blackburn Rovers FC still currently play in the Premiership.