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It was a miserable day, winds gusting up to 15 miles an hour, and the tailing ends of a two-day rainstorm drizzled over the cinder oval. It was the day of the long-standing track meet between Oxford University Athletic Club and the team from Britain’s Amateur Athletic Association. When they stepped to the line at 6 P.M. for the big race, the wind had subsided and the rain had stopped. Only about 400 spectators were there to see the race, but the sporting press, sensing a momentous event, was well represented.

Many said that no one would ever break the four-minute mile, but on this brisk treacherous day in England in the spring of 1954, Roger Bannister did just that, covering the distance in 3:59.4.

The next day, newspapers around the world printed huge headlines publicizing the world record time. The media explored every facet of the race and the man who won it. Yet those runners who had previously approached this record time and those who later surpassed it did not receive the same adoration and acclaim. What made Roger Bannister’s sub-four-minute mile so miraculous, more miraculous than similar feats by other competitors? What created this worldwide fascination? Such attention is symptomatic of the Milestone Syndrome.

Almost ten years later in Hershey, Pennsylvania, a similar feat took place. The Philadelphia Warriors, with their league-leading scorer, Wilt Chamberlain, took the floor against the lowly New York Knickerbockers. Wilt, now in his third NBA season, was the most prolific scorer in basketball. He was a rare combination of strength, speed, and stamina and on this night, the Knicks saw it all. The Dipper, as he was called, sank 36 field goals on 63 shots and hit 28 foul shots, racking up a total of 100 point for the game. All three numbers still stand alongside the 100 points as NBA records.

News accounts of the game indicate the small crowd of only 4,124 spectators who clamored for Wilt to hit the century mark. They chanted, “Give it to Wilt!” and his teammates obliged passing up open shots to feed Wilt the ball. New York was not so accommodating and set out to foul Wilt’s teammates before the ball could be passed into the pivot. Philadelphia countered by easing up on defense to get the ball back quicker. They even fouled the opposition to stop the clock. Such tactics by both teams illustrate the Milestone Syndrome, our fascination with numerical plateaus, with benchmarks, and quantitative/linear evaluations.

This phenomenon extends beyond sports and into our daily lives. In the supermarket, you will find the most popular last digit is nine (61 percent), followed by five (19 percent). Even numbered digits make up less than 2 percent. These subtle pricing ploys have become important weapons in marketing arsenals. You see, most people perceive $1.99 as much cheaper than $2 because they read and process the prices from left to right. And the jump from $9.99 to $10.00 is an enormous psychological leap for the bargain hunter.

However, when it comes to quality people often use price as a clue to how good a product might be. In expensive stores such as Neiman-Marcus and Nordstrom, most tags are rounded off to the nearest dollar. These valuations enhance the store’s image and influence the buyers’ perceptions. If prices were perceived as too low, the affluent clientele might question the quality.

How do these numerical perceptions evolve? Some are the product of faulty or lazy thinking while others are invented hype. In addition, with repeated usage these perceptions become bigger than life. For example, for 20 years the four-minute mile stood as an apparently unsurpassable limit and thus this psychological obstacle was firmly implanted in the public’s mind. In a similar vein, the emphasis given to the Dow surpassing each 1,000-mark plateau laid the groundwork for banner headlines when the 10,000 mark was reached. Another example of how we glorify certain numerical milestones is the big hullabaloo surrounding the 2000 New Year’s Eve celebration.

Why should these events be given added importance when, logically speaking, their only importance is being a numerical plateau? A second less, a point more, a year earlier or later, where is the significance? Is this media hype or is there some scientific basis for this added emphasis?

Psychologists have a number of explanations for such behaviors and most reflect on our need to be on the winning side. Triumphs, even if sometimes illusionary, contribute to our enjoyment and uplift our egos. In addition, when pursued in mass, milestones give a common bond that give validity to the goal and contribute to our sense of belonging. Peer acceptance and the safety net offered by being part of the herd also contribute to these assessments. However, one must also consider the dramatic implications and our need to create mythological heroes. Heroes that journey into the unfamiliar, do battle, and gain the reward–surpassing milestones.

In baseball, statistics are used extensively in calling the game. Numbers are an integral part of the game as they determine strategies as well as the level of fan appreciation. When mythical plateaus enter the picture, they affect not only how the game is perceived but also how it is played. Putting up good numbers now overshadowed other aspects of the sport. A player hitting consistently over.300 has a bigger fan following, is paid considerably more than a player hitting.290. It’s not proportionately more it’s considerably more. Baseball, more than any other sport, rewards those surpassing milestones; a pitcher winning 20 games or players hitting 30 home runs and stealing 30 bases, or driving in over 100 runs. In sports, marketing today stresses the stars, not the teams and putting up memorable numbers certainly helps in that endeavor.

In sports, business, even politics, milestones fit in with our news-bite mentality. They simplify objectives, establish linear perspective, and support our competitive nature. They also fulfill a need for that which is tangible and quantitative. They make it easier to keep score, easier to justify actions.

For centuries, military minds have gauged their success based on numerical achievements, i.e., distance advanced, damage inflicted, number of enemy killed. Campaigns are designed and often-tenuous objectives are set to appease the egos of the high command. However, on the battlefield, succumbing to milestone syndrome can have horrendous consequences. The battle of Passchendaele in World War I is a classic example where the quest for a victorious milestone overshadowed common sense. British Commander-in-Chief, Sir Douglas Haig had set his sights on breaking through to the distant Belgium ports of Ostaend and Zeebrugge. Both French and British leaders as well as Haig’s own Intelligence Staff opposed the offensive. Despite these objections, General Haig gave the order to attack, July 31, 1917.

In heavy rain, the ambitious frontal assault bogged down at Passchendaele, a village that no longer exists, and yet the General threw more men into the slaughter. The ensuing battle costs the British 400,000 lives to gain a mere five miles of mud. Six months later, the British abandoned Passchendaele to reinforce lines elsewhere.

General Haig was so caught up in the increments of battle he was willing to give up countless lives to claim a numerical victory. This particular battle demonstrates another facet of the Milestone Syndrome, that once a numerical contest is initiated, our egos are unlikely to consider other forms of resolution. The rules of engagement are set and all that matters is the quantitative scorecard.

This fixation, this obsession to demonstrate numerical victories is also prevalent in the corporate world. In this computer age, almost every facet of business is measured and the benchmarks or milestones are very much in vogue. There is an old saying in business: What gets measured is what gets done. Unfortunately, management measures so many things they do not pay attention to any of them. Likewise, few companies know how to process these measurements and know where to intervene to change outcomes. Moreover, items difficult to measure such as quality, safety, innovations, employee engagement and customer satisfaction become secondary, as they do not fit neatly into the spreadsheet paradigm.

The Milestone Syndrome also plays a role in stock market fluctuations. Many aggressive investors will dump a stock when earnings fall below expectations even slightly. That can cause a drop in the stock’s price that is unrelated to its true value. When benchmarks are not met, investors abandon the perceived loser and pursue something better. This simplistic ritual drives the market, feeding on its own greed or fear, perpetuating chronicles that perpetuate more projections. It’s a never-ending cycle and decision plateaus continually shift finding their level of comfort, selling, buying, or holding firm. Perceptions and expectations create these illusionary milestones that are based on limited assumptions. In addition, in such a market, the Game Theory applies–that everyone else is making choices based on similar assumptions.

The Milestone Syndrome also affects how we handle negotiations. Numerical plateaus such as ten thousand increments, going from five figures to six, and the all-important million mark are milestones that can be either enhance or diminish one’s bargaining position. If you are asking for a raise and your sales have surpassed the million-dollar mark, you have a strong psychological advantage. However, if you are asking for a raise from five figures to six, that extra digit presents a pronounced barrier.

How we appraise quantitative values affects our decision-making and sometimes our happiness. We chase the numbers. Then we become caught up in their implications. A young woman may dread turning the age of thirty. A car owner may brag about his car reaching the 100,000-mile mark. The football crowd will applaud a runner surpassing 100 yards in a game. These are all psychological plateaus to which we give added importance. The price of a diamond jumps when it reaches a true half-carat or full carat. A 0.49-carat stone is priced a lot lower than a half-carat…and a 0.90-carat diamond goes for much less than a one-caret stone. Yet the difference in the size is almost imperceptible.

Other malformations of the Milestone Syndrome should also be considered. Focusing only on the numerical draws us away from pursuing other worthy achievements. As an example, in Europe, employees strike over issues such as working conditions, vacation time, and health benefits while in the United States, negotiations center on wages. Dwelling primarily on the numerical increments reduces exploration into abstract innovations and the inclination to investigate non-quantitative benefits.

If we allow it to, the Milestone Syndrome can affect us and the consequences can range from a joyful celebration to devastating lose. We must choose and awareness is our only protection. The symptomatic treatment requires understanding the forces of hype, psychological barriers and our own egos. I have used various examples to illustrate this phenomenon and this last one presents a thought-provoking question. A seller of height-building shoes says his best prospects are not short men but men who are 5-foot-11 and want to be 6-foot-plus. What would happen if scales of measurement were change to metric?

When it comes to games, Cricket is leading the way in India, the national game Hockey lagging miles behind. The passion among the people for the game is evident in the matches that are hosted in India. Thus it is said more than often that cricket has achieved the status of a religion in India with millions of followers to its credit. The fan base transcends all the cultural and religious barriers of the country. The people are so passionate about the game that it is almost impossible for a neutral cricket viewer to come and enjoy the game. The crowds begin to fill the stadium 5 hours prior on match days.

The different versions of the game have their respective followers with the One day matches and Twenty 20 comprising of youth and the Test matches for avid lovers of the game. The game which is played primarily by 8-10 nations is a rage in the Indian sub-continent with India leading the way. People follow their favorite cricketers closely and even a minute incident in their lives becomes a top story in the News. It might be fascinating for the sports fraternity across the world that the boards of such a game are among the richest in the world. For instance, the BCCI (Board for Cricket and Control in India) is the richest in the world leaving behind top Football clubs and the game which is being played by almost every country in the world.

Thus it is quite natural for people to know how one can create a success story with a game that is played only by minuscule number of nations of which some are still developing economies. But it will be an eye opener for them and for the followers of the game that there are very few spectators that come to witness the local or club level matches and thus turn out at only International matches. Most of them turn out at the matches where the home team is playing and see the home team winning. There are quite a number of occasions when India was losing the match and the stadium had to be evacuated as there was uproar from the crowd and throwing of bottles on the opponent team. There is maddening celebration after winning a game and effigies of players being burnt after losing a game. Thus it raises a basic question that whether we Indians really love the game of Cricket?

If Indians really appreciate the game then there should be ample public in the local club level matches and the standard of these games would also be higher. Unfortunately, this is not the case in India. It’s true that people are crazy but they want to see India winning. They cannot appreciate the finer things of the game even if home country is winning forget about when losing a game. This may not look an appropriate justification to an avid cricket lover from India but the picture will be crystal clear if we visit other countries and sports.

For instance the stadium is full of capacity in the club level matches in England and Australia with people staying till the very end of the game. They appreciate a good shot even by an opponent player’s team which is just opposite in India as there is a pin drop silence even if the opposition player has hit a beautiful shot or taken a crucial wicket. This is magnifies if we get to witness other games like tennis. It is a common instance there when people come together to appreciate a good game rather than support a particular player. There are quite a number of instances when Swiss maestro ace Roger Federer is cheered for his shot making over Briton Andy Murray in Wimbledon. The game of cricket, ironically, is facing a stiff competition from its various versions like One Day Cricket is Threatening Test Matches while Twenty20 is threatening them all.

Thus if Cricket has its ambitions to become a global game then its reception has to be a bit more serious in a country like India which has the largest following for the game. Otherwise, the success story of BCCI will be a temporary one and about just cashing the sentiments of the masses. They will have to promote the game at the grass root level and then go the next level of introducing it to the nations that are completely new to the game.

Breaking 1996 down into the biggest news, sports and entertainment events; here’s what happened…

Two tragedies hit the hearts of Britons in 1996, the nation’s sympathies going out to the people of Dunblane and Manchester. In Dunblane, a crazed gunman went on a shooting spree in at a local infant school, killing an entire class and their teacher. Later in the year, as a direct response to those ill-fated events, the Government announced that it would be outlawing almost all handguns in the UK.

In Manchester, a huge bomb devastated its busy central shopping area just as it was filling up with eager Saturday shoppers. Police managed to start an evacuation before it blew up but scores of people were still killed or injured in the blast. Such was the damage caused, that the episode led to a total regeneration of Manchester city centre.

Also hitting the news in ’96 was the introduction of the first genetically modified (or GM) food to go on sale in British supermarkets. Modified tomato puree was the cause of all the fuss with some critics dubbing it a “Frankenstein food”.

The world of sport was dominated by England’s hosting of the European football championships (Euro ’96). The England v Scotland group stage match drew much attention with Gazza’s wonder goal eventually stealing the win for the home team. Cheered on by home support, the ‘Three Lions’ made it all the way to the semi-finals, the nation going football crazy as it looked as if England were really going to win a major tournament for the first time since ’66, then, as really should have been expected, they lost on penalties to Germany.

Entertainment wise, carrot topped Chris Evans re-invented the chat show format with his hit show ‘TFI Friday’.Presenting celebrity gossip, the hippest bands and lad friendly guests, this unscripted, chaotic program briefly made Evans the most sought after man on TV. Over on the BBC, a group of thirty-something lawyers were gaining huge ratings; ‘This Life’ being a bit like the American ‘Friends’ but with much more ‘bad’ behaviour and saucy goings on.

The big screen was blessed with one of the jewels of the British film-making crown, ‘Trainspotting’. Despite featuring heroin, needles, vomit and disgusting toilet bowls, this was the coolest thing of the year and took Ewan McGregor from nowhere to ‘Star Wars’. The more family friendly film of 1996 was ‘Toy Story’; it being the first feature length movie ever to be animated entirely by computer. The results were quite stunning and people flocked to see ‘Woody’ (a pull-string cowboy) and ‘Buzz Lightyear’ (a high-tech space ranger) battle it out to become little Andy’s favourite toy.


The Arab region or the Middle East part of the world is very rich in oil and natural gas resources which meets 96% of their total energy demand, while the renewable energy resources cater to only a meagre 4%. This affluence of oil reservoirs pose a great challenge for the development of renewable energy resources in the region, but soonheless constant strenuous efforts are being taken by the Governments of Middle East region in developing renewable energy resources.

Efforts are being taken to raise the production of renewable energy resources to meet 6% of the overall demand by 2020 in the region, where electricity consumption is steadily steadily at a rate of 7% per year, due to economic growth and development and hence meeting the demand with clean form of energy is increasingly a challenge.

The region has also a good source of solar radiation and wind speed to develop the required renewable form of energy through commercial power plants. Desertec Industrial Initiative 2013 reported that in the Arab region, a transition to a renewable based power system is economically more feasible and more attractive than in most other regions of the world.

The region strides hard to transform its energy production into a sustainable one by shifting gears to alternative energy resources to the convention fossil fuels found abundant in the region under the guidance of Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RCREEE), in alliance with the League of Arab states and International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), and the former includes 22 states from the Middle East region.


RCREEE has brought its course of action and strategy towards its sustainable energy policy or the year of 2030 in which different member states set their targets out of which Morocco's clean power target of 40% installed capacity leads the table followed by Algeria, Egypt, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and so on, all of them having the goals exceeding 20% ​​clean power by 2020.

These reached targets are general renewable energy targets and do not include technology specific targets, which in turn is inclusive of solar and wind energy production, out of which solar power consists of both Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and Photo Voltaic (PV) power . These technology based renewable energy development has become the emphasis of alternative energy generation of the Arab nations.

Each Arab nation as a part of this initiative has undertanned several measures like setting up dedicated authorities or departments in their Ministry of Energy to look after Renewable Energy Technology (RET) and formulating policies that encourage private sector investment in Renewable Energy production. Investments are encouraged through public funds as well.

Said that, renewable energy production is not without any challenges. There are many measures that hinder the achievement of the said targets that could be tackled by a joint effort of the different nations and with international assistance. The Arab nations put together are currently constructing renewable energy plants of capacity 6.4 GW, excluding hydro power plants, which is a significant scale of production, the largest contributors being wind and solar power plants aggregating 4.5 GW and 1.8 GW respectively.

That said, the achievement of these objectives are not without any challenges as the institutional set ups in each member state different in their structure and function and their association with each other is extremely important for the realization of the aggregate objectives of the region.

The following are the few challenges that need to be resolved in the realization of renewable energy targets.


Political will: As like any other scheme, political will forms the fulcrum of the realization of these targets with streamlined policies and a concrete administrative structure that can effectively oversee the functions. Mobilization of funds would be another hindrance with the crude oil prices being irregular- which forms the main source of income in the region, the economies need to be balanced in finding an alternative for what is the primary source for sustenance.

Lack of target and strategy: Many of the countries lack a clear target setting strategy which is made cumbersome and gets entwined in binding legal documents and since the first step towards the transformation to clean energy itself gets stuck. A legal framework that defines the roles and responsibilities of every actors and the regulatory policies is another need that poses a challenge.

Legal framework: As of now only six of the 22 countries that are Algeria, Jordan, Morocco, Palestine, Syria and Tunisia have a well-defined legal framework and the remaining are yet to form one. The absence of legal framework Declines investor confidence turning down the possibilities of a renewable energy mass production.

Supporting policy: Another challenge is the absence of a supporting policy in terms of a Power Purchase Agreement, which is now a lengthy process and does not allow large-scale production of renewable energy.

In other words a lack of clarity on the number of projects planned through public competitive bidding reduces the investor confidence and hence a condition of uncertainty is prevalent. Moreover the electricity tariffs in most of the countries are subsidized that makes the investment in renewable energy production less alluring.

Financial challenges: The challenges are not just the lack of a definite administrative and legal framework but also financial. The renewable energy production needs a considerable upfront investment and this makes the case worse for the countries, where fuel costs are low. Thus the expectations of an investor for a better premium can be corroborated only by the government actions that ensure a secure investment platform.

Other challenges: Moreover technical knowledge in these countries are not so competent as per the global standards and the Quality Assurance systems. Renewable energy engineering for RETstandardization are not so well laid.

A few countries have been selected in which dedicated renewable energy resources development entities are set up after a SWOT analysis, that are monitored for its function and its horizontal coordination with other actors in spreading awareness about renewable energy outside its plans. Accordingly course of actions for different countries have been charted out based on the category under which the challenge falls, like administrative, financial etc.

There are a lot dependent factors which will decide the success of realization of these targets, but as of now, it can be legally believed that there is enough political will for a better cause.

No such award officially exists in the sport of baseball, but if it did the plaque should be given in honor of Pat Meares. He spent his nine year career as the regular shortstop for the Minnesota Twins and later the Pittsburgh Pirates, an unremarkable but quite adequate infielder who was exactly average.

At no point was this more true than in 1997, when the primary offensive stats of Meares matched exactly the statistics of the average player in baseball. He hit .276, which was the exact overall batting average in both leagues combined, as were the ten home runs Meares amassed that season.

Those numbers would be far from average for the player who would win the Pat Meares Award at this point in the season, for his mark of .276 is more than twenty points higher than the current overall batting average. On the other hand, his ten home runs would be significantly fewer than the league average, which is on pace to reach almost twenty.

In 2018 so far players have a collective batting average of .247 in the American League and just .244 in the Senior Circuit, numbers alarmingly low when compared to the decade in which Meares played. In fact, not one single team has as high a batting average as Meares did in 1997, and the league leading Boston Red Sox (.265) trail him by more than ten points. Amazingly, four clubs have team averages under .230, bottomed out by the .220 overall average of the Arizona Diamondbacks.

Although no one is the exact match for Mr. Average that Meares was three decades ago, one guy in the A.L. comes extremely close. Oh, and he happens to be not only a perennial All-Star, but also a future first ballot inductee of the Hall of Fame in Cooperstown.

Having a batting average of .247, Albert Pujols is hitting at the precise percentage of the typical player. The eight blasts Pujols has mashed this year is just a half a percentage point more than the average player in the A.L.

Several guys in the National League are hitting .244, the exact overall average so far in 2018. Third baseman Evan Longoria of the San Francisco Giants is one of them, but his ten home runs have put him three over the average. The other .244 hitter is outfielder Ender Inciarte of the Atlanta Braves, who is however three home runs shy of the average National Leaguer.

Trey Mancini, an outfielder for the Orioles, is hitting at the exact average, not of the league he plays in, but the team to which he belongs. His .228 batting average is the same mark at which Baltimore is hitting overall, tied with the Texas Rangers for lowest in the American League.

There is an equivalent to Mancini in the other league, a player whose batting average is exactly the same as his team’s overall mark. Pittsburgh shortstop Jordy Mercer started the day at .255, which is also the collective average of the Pirates as a club.

Meares patrolled the Pittsburgh middle infield fifteen years before Mercer, but the game they are a part of has changed dramatically. A guy who hit twenty points over today’s league average never made an All Star team or ever reached the playoffs, and that season Meares earned $225,00 for being “Mr. Average.”

My grandparents always say to me how our lives are better now than when they were young, and that I should enjoy and cherish my life instead of complaining. Admittedly, in most senses, our lives are indeed much better than our grandparents’ when they were young.

Back in the day, gifts for grandparents definitely wouldn’t have been Plasma TVs or mobile phones. No siree. In the words of my Grandad, “in my day, we were lucky if we got a plate of baked beans on the table for dinner.”

When my grandparents got married, they moved into a cramped one-room – and I repeat – one room flat, with a divan mattress in the corner it, and no running water or electricity. They cooked using a single gas hob and could hardly afford to feed themselves. And when their son was born, times got so tough that they often had to eat blackberries for dinner!

In my grandparents’ era, you were lucky if you had a sink in your abode. Many folks collected water from either private wells or from public pumps. Washing machines and dishwashers would’ve, undoubtedly, come in extremely useful and made incredibly handy Birthday gifts for Grandmothers, or Birthday gifts for Grandad, so they would’ve spent more time resting and less time washing the dishes and clothes themselves!

As for debit and credit cards, my grandparents didn’t use ATM cards until they were in their 60’s – imagine that! Instead, they always went inside the bank and did business eye-to-eye with the bank clerk, who even knew them by name.

My grandparents often joke that they don’t know why people refer to those times as “the good ol’ days,” because there wasn’t much good about them. Grandad told me a story about a young lad who actually killed himself for lack of food and money.

Of course, I treasure these stories and the time I spend with my grandparents. When I find myself drooling over a new gadget, I think back to the stories of my Gran ransacking the cupboards for a missing “twopence” piece, which would’ve paid for a can of soup for her son’s dinner. It puts life into perspective.

People managed to get by without today’s mod-cons. Don’t get me wrong, this isn’t a criticism of today’s modern conveniences, because frankly, many of them make life much more enjoyable. On the other hand, perhaps we should be reminded that the majority of these are luxuries, not necessities, even though media and peer pressure would have us believe otherwise.

These days, we can spend more time and money on our hobbies, which was unheard of in our grandparents’ time. My Grandad would’ve given anything to immerse himself in his favourite book, but he just couldn’t afford it, they were that strapped for cash.

When I was walking with my Gran down the local high street, we passed a tanning bed salon and spied a girl, her skin glowing a shade of orangey-red, strut out of the salon. Gran whispered to me: “Why pay the earth to cook your skin when the good Lord shines a sun over your head that does the same for free?” That did make me laugh.

I can safely say kindles, GPS devices, Xboxes, Wiis, and so on, certainly won’t be on my gifts for grandfather or Birthday Gifts for Grandma shopping list. I believe there’s definitely something to be said for personalised gifts for grandparents.

Very recently, I gave a personalised football book to my Grandad for his 80thbirthday. The front cover displayed his name in gold, and there was a personal message on the inside cover. This particular book contained newspaper reports on the history of Sunderland football team over the last century.

On visiting him a week later, Grandad was already half way through it. Not being much of a football lover myself, I couldn’t really share in my Grandad’s excitement as he went off at a tangent about all the things he’d read, like the famous League and Cup wins, the stars – past and present, etc. etc. etc. But what did excite me was when he said this was one of the best presents he’d received, ever. That made me so happy.

When you begin to collect your favorite football teams signed mini helmet its not hard to think of the potential value they may have in the future when they win a Superbowl or a franchise player gets recognized as a influential figure in the NFL, ex. Brett Favre (great player just no Superbowl ring as of this article).

Here’s a simple example showing how much a signed mini helmet can vary, depending on a few factors. First, if its totally authentic with a picture of the player signing, the player is really good and its in great condition you can expect a up $500. For example, an authentic signed mini helmet from Dan Marino has sold $500.

On the other hand a Reggie Bush non authenticated signed mini helmet will put you back about $150 and a replica will cost around $20.

It all depends on the type of collector you are. Some people like to get the most authentic and rare items and others are totally satisfied with a replica. Legit stuff is always nice because it makes you feel like you’re more a part of the team.

If you choose to purchase a big ticket signed mini helmet over the internet make sure the seller has been in business for some time, so you cred they aren’t some fly by night scam artist. Call the contact number an speak with the seller to make sure they will respond if you have any questions. Ask for a authentication number and verify it is indeed authentic. Another way to protect yourself against fraud would be to purchase it with a credit card rather than a debit card, since most credit cards these days offer some type of insurance on your purchases.

The question we are looking at here is what is gambling? Gambling is taking a risk. Gambling is taking a chance on winning. Most of the time gambling is used in cards, sales, flipping houses, game shows, betting on horses, dogs, fights, sporting events and on anything else where there would be a risk involved. The gambling side of it is legal in some states but not legal in other states and thus only allows for places like Las Vegas and other cities for example, along the coast of Alabama and Louisiana to set up hotels along the beach to allow people to have places to go and gamble.

Gambling is taking a risk, right? Well, that is why sales is considered to be gambling. Gambling is done because you try to sale some one some thing and you take a risk on not making as much as what you initially invested in it. That is why flipping houses are also considered to be gambling. It’s considered to be taking a risk or taking a chance. Taking a risk just means that you are willing to bet a certain amount of money on it just to see what would happen and to see if you could win more money back out of it than what you put in on it. Cards are considered gambling because of the different kinds of card games that there are to play. Games like Rummy, Poker, Tong, 21, Black Jack, Spades, and other games can be considered gambling if you place a bet on the game you play. Purchasing gambling chips at a casino is using there money with in the casino to gamble and placing bets on games is considered to be that way as well.

Football games especially like the Super Bowl are generally gambled on. Parlays are used in football games more so than any other kind of betting. There are also full cover bets are used in football and other sporting events. There are different types of full cover bets. The different types of full covered bets are listed as followed: Trixie bets are bets placed on a selection of 3; Yankee bets are a selection of 4; Canadian or Super Yankee is a selection of 5 bets and Heinz is a selection of 6 bets. The full covered bets are generally used more in sporting events and other types of betting to where you can increase your earnings by placing multiple bets on the same player, team, winner, point’s selection, point differential or any other ways determined on how to win.

Fights on dogs, horses, chickens and humans are gambled on all the time. People consider how good the animal or human being is fighting verses the other animal or human being is that they would be fighting against. When the odds are in your favour then you bet high. If the odds are not in your favour then you bet low or go with the other player. If a team is considered to be the under dog then you may consider placing your bet on the other team because the other team has a better. Placing the bets to win money is what gambling is. Gambling is considered taking a chance at winning back more than what you risk was to be considered in the first place.

There is a rule when you gamble and that is to have fun with it and make more money than what you started with. When you gamble be sure that you are willing to risk it all for a few or a lot of what you risked in the first place. This is why it is such a gamble to bet against the odds or bet for the losing team if you know with out a doubt that they will probably lose.

Card manufacturers were producing trading cards long before the Dallas Cowboys joined the NFL in 1960. In the 1950’s Topps began packaging their signature product, bubblegum, with baseball and football cards. From there, as football grew in popularity, players could find their likeness on items such as milk cartons, soft drink caps, cereal boxes and plastic cups. The emergence of the AFL in 1960 allowed Topps competitors, beginning with Fleer, to make inroads in the business. The 1961 Fleer set featured both leagues, and then they focused on the AFL alone. Philadelphia Gum secured the NFL rights for 1964, forcing Topps to go for the AFL which left Fleer with no product in either baseball or football. Philadelphia Gum produced football card sets featuring Cowboys from 1964 through 1967. In 1982 Topps was licensed by NFL Properties for the first time. Previously, team logos on helmets were removed by airbrush. In the 70’s Fleer rejoined the ranks by producing sets of cards called Fleer Team Action and FTA Stickers. They focused on NFL teams not individual players and were able to use team logos. The “card explosion” started around 1989 with new companies joining the fold like Pro Set and Score. By 1992 there were more than 30 brands of football cards. It was a new era for the hobby. You could all but forget about collecting all the cards of your favorite team, but now focus on a favorite player or two. Just to put it all in perspective – with all the parallel, inserts, and variations – in 1995 there were over 250 different cards produced of Troy Aikman.

The Cowboys were an expansion team in 1960. Their first roster was created by choosing 36 players from the 12 existing franchises (three per team). In the first set of cards featuring Dallas Cowboys players, 1960 Topps, all the players were pictured in the uniforms of the teams they departed. The next year they took part in the NFL draft and acquired Bob Lilly with their first ever draft pick. There have been many outstanding players through the years that have donned the blue star on their helmet, several of which are members of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Only one man held the position of head coach for the first 29 years of the organization – Tom Landry. Coach Landry led the Cowboys to two Super Bowl titles, five NFC Championships, 13 NFC East titles, 18 trips to the playoffs and 20 winning seasons.

There were no plastic holders or sleeves to keep your cards from harms way in the early years. They were rubber banded together and tossed in shoe boxes and the stickers were stuck onto school notebooks or bike fenders. Cards were flipped and traded with your buddies and even thumb tacked or taped on bulletin boards. All these things lend to the value of the cards today. If you were lucky enough to have kept very good care of your cards when you were younger, and your mother didn’t toss that shoebox in the attic out with the trash, you could already have a good start to your collection. Now with all the top-loaders, sorting boxes, screw downs and nine-slot binder pages available to the collector, it’s much easier to take care of those gems. That is why I consider 1960 – 1990 the vintage years. Those older cards can sometimes be very difficult to find in great condition. That is not to say that the cards manufactured after 1990 have no value or collectible appeal. They just won’t be as scarce or hard to find in great condition twenty or even fifty years from now. I encourage you to collect beyond 1990 and on. It’s a whole new hobby now with more resources to fill your checklists like the internet and card shows.

So you fancy yourself as a bar and nightclub enthusiast do you? Think you’re in the know with the industry? Well think again. Here are just a few things you probably didn’t know about your favourite bars and nightclubs.

  • Ever wondered what the name of the boss of the bouncers at a bar or nightclub is? Probably not however if you ever have the misfortune of meeting him, you may want to address him as Mr “Cooler.”
  • Bars and Nightclubs on corners are on average bigger then bars and nightclubs on normal lots of land.
  • At any given time, Ibiza has the largest percentage of population partying at a bar or nightclub.
  • South East Asian bars and clubs are the countries found to most likely to water down drinks, in particular spirits which for a number of reasons are disproportionately more expensive then locally brewed product (in particular beers)
  • The most popular shot in the world is vodka… largely propped up by the Russians where vodka is by and far the number one drink in the world.
  • Beer company’s invest millions of dollars in designing beer taps, due to the fact that a good beer tap can improve sales of a beer by over $20. Pretty good for a tiny bit of plastic.
  • Bars and Nightclubs have been voted the number 1 destination to meet people of the opposite sex.
  • The reason why Melbourne has a huge number of small bars and Sydney doesn’t is because of the different licensing laws that exist between each state. In Melbourne, the cost of setting up a bar is much lower and as such, is more conducive to smaller venues. In response to the popularity of small bars in Melbourne, Sydney has now begun to relax their licensing laws, allowing smaller operators to open up small bars.
  • The word Strobe (as in Strobe light) is in fact short for Stroboscopic.