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Who would have believed this possible in this "Die in the Wool" Rugby League State?

The first game of Australian Football in Queensland occurred in 1866 well before any of the other football codes began to be played in this state. This occurred not long after the first games in Victoria. Some of the men involved in the first games in Victoria were at the forefront of those first games in Queensland. The game remained strong in such centers as Ipswich, Maryborough and to a lesser extent in the capital city of Brisbane until the mid-1880s.

At that time two decisions made around 1886 bought almost the demise of our Australian game in Queensland and allowed for the rise in popularity and growth of firstly Rugby Union and, then Rugby League.

The first decision was taken by the Queensland grammar schools to replace Australian Football by Rugby Union. The second decision occurred when Brisbane teams refused to make the journey to Ipswich to play games. This lead to a falling interest in the game in both towns and rather quickly players bought other sports, including Rugby Union.

Prior to this time there had been some "intercolonial" games between a Queensland combination, a Victorian team and one from Sydney. But in the mid-1880s, there was the first New South Wales versus Queensland Rugby match which created great interest in the other code. This began the rise of the rugby codes in Queensland.

The Australian game struggled into the 20th century, becoming a minor sport played mainly in Brisbane. But during the latter half of the century, country leagues grow in number and strength. So much so, that it is true to say that the game is played in every provincial city and their surrounds across the state.

Many of these country leagues have interesting histories. It is true to acknowledge that, in some areas, footballers may play both Rugby League and Australian Football at the same time.

When the Australia wide national competition began during the 1980s, interest in our national game in Queensland grew rapidly. This occurred some 100 years after the problems of the 1880s with the arrival of the Brisbane Bears. When the Bears and the Fitzroy Lions amalgamated and won three national premierships in a row, the game grew even more quickly through the state as we now had our own team in the national competition.

Now, in the 150th year of our game in Queensland, there is a group of men and women sitting down, sifting through records, programs, newspaper reports and photographs, writing histories of their clubs and football leagues so that our game's history is reserved for future generations.

The major project is to write a book which covers the whole picture of our game. Many of group writing the histories have contributed sections to be incorporated in this major project.

This project is called Q150 and details of the project can be found on the Queensland Australian Football Forensics web site at http://www.q150.net.au .

Football is the king of all sports, it is sport which combines strength with intelligence, courage and elegance, attracting a lot of young kids, who try to copy their idols they see on television. Also, they feel happy of being able to achieve performance in such a domain.

Football is a team sport which is played between two teams made of eleven players, each of them trying to introduce the ball in the goal, hitting it with their foot or with any other part of their body, except for the arms. This sports game is one of the phenomena of our era and we can admit that is the most appreciated sport played today. This sport was first mentioned in England in 1175. The French used to play a similar game called “La soule” and the Italians used to play “Il giuoco del calcio”.

The first details referring to football appeared in England in 1602, when there were two such games. Starting with the eighteenth century, the English started playing rugby, the players being forced to hit the ball with their foot, which led to the name it has today.

The 26th of October 1863 is the date when the first football association and the first regulations were created, there being thirteen articles referring to the rules of this sport. In 1904, FIFA was founded, which brought a series of changes in the regulations of this sport. In 1930, FIFA organized the first World Championships, which took place in Uruguay.

Hosts to the eagerly anticipated football World Cup, South Africa is ranked the 25th wealthiest county in the world in terms of GDP. However, there still remains an enormous disparity between the rich and the poor, since about a quarter of the 49m strong population is unemployed and lives on less than the equivalent of $1.25 U.S. a day.

Of the remaining three-quarters, about four and a half million people, or 9.4 percent of the overall population, have access to the fixed-line Internet at this time. Perhaps surprisingly, this is not the highest Internet penetration rate in the region – that particular honour is bestowed upon the island nation of Mauritius.

According to Euromonitor, debit cards dominate South Africa’s payment card market with 28 million of them in circulation as of 2008, versus about 8 million credit cards which, interestingly, by law cannot be used to purchase gasoline. In light of the forthcoming influx of tourists, politicians are working to revise those regulations, so that people can pay for gas using their flexible friends.

As for premium-rate pay-per-call numbers, South Africa is the only country on the African continent that support these, and Premium SMS (PSMS) is also a viable billing mechanism in this market.

Accepting cash from this largely unbanked nation is also possible, thanks to ecommerce payment provider Smart Voucher Ltd, trading as Ukash, who became the first to offer online cash payment solutions in South Africa; allowing e-retailers to market to the country’s large cash consumer base for the first time.

U.K.-based Ukash, in partnership with strategic South African-based partner Blue Label Telecoms, enables consumers who do not own a card or are unwilling to use it on the Internet, to purchase from online merchants without revealing sensitive bank details using prepaid vouchers.

By steadfastly sticking to a “credit card only” payment policy, you are therefore depriving yourself of additional revenue if you are currently receiving traffic from this, the largest economy in the African Union.

The most anticipated latest advert of the series of Nike Soccer Commercials was released 29th of April, at the helm of the second semi final match between the Manchester United and the Barcelona Champions.

Directed by no other than Madonna's guy, Guy Ritchie, Nike has successfully captured again the hearts of footy fanatics.

From the early campaign "How badly do you want to be a footballer?" the new public was dubbed "Take it to the Next Level". It features the blows and hung ups of a football dreamer as he climbed his way from his humble start to owning his national team jersey, and living the luster of stardom. The 2-min ad was made more interesting as presented through the person's point of view, giving the audience a high feeling of rush and exhilarations. Something that is new among the series of Nike soccer commercials.

Adding intensity is the song "do not speak (I came to make a bang)" – which they really did, as sung by a band called Eagle of Death Metal.
Their words came fitting as:

"Do not move, do not speak, even whisper
There's something happenin 'but do not be scared
I'm too smooth, you never see me coming
I'm never in a hurry, I'm just movin 'fast "

Casts includes International football stars Cristiano Ronaldo, Marco Materazzi, William Gallas, Zlatan Ibrahimovic, Ruud van Nistelrooy, Arsene Wenger, William Gallas, Cesc Fabregas, and many more.

It may be another follow-you-dream stuff but the wit, humor, and heart showcased were enticing enough to make the drive another favorite. And this, as expressed by Ritchie, who is also a big soccer fan to Chelsea, was his biggest ad work to date.

Soccer is the widely played game having millions of fans across the globe. The popularity of this game can be estimated from the fact that it is the largest playing game. The most important part of this game is its uniforms. The soccer uniforms are worn by the players during the game. Every sport has some rule and as per the rule, it is mandatory to wear this during the game. Moreover, during the practice session or during the practice match, players wear these.

The game involves tremendous physical exertion. The players have to sweat a lot during the game. So, it is essential that the uniforms must be manufactured using brilliant quality fabric. In the past, the apparel for sports was usually developed from the cotton fabric. The fact behind this is that it is considered as the comfy fabric. But for now, polyester is widely used in the manufacturing of these. This is considered at par in comfort to the cotton fabric and has the ability to soak the sweat.

So, before buying soccer uniforms for your team, it is essential for you to understand the basic needs of the players. They need comfy fabric as lots of physical exertion is required in the game. So, it is recommended to buy uniforms made up of polyester fabric. This fabric provides excellent comfort to the players and wearing the outfits made up from this fabric provides them an edge over their competitors.

There is a famous proverb, look good, feel good. The soccer uniforms having amazing designs help in enhancing the confidence level of the players. And it is a well-known fact that the more the confidence level, the better will the performance of the players. So, pick the outfits which help in giving your team a wonderful look. Nowadays, customized soccer uniforms are widely demanded. This is because of the fact that these contain additional features like the team name, player name, the team logo, etc.

This is an age of digital printing technology. Most of the manufacturers equip their collections with sublimation printing technology. This is a versatile printing technology in which the computer aided graphics and designs get directly imprinted on the fabric using high pressure and temperature technique. These motifs have the property to withstand tough playing conditions.

Where to buy soccer uniforms?

This is certainly a very easy question with a difficult answer. The best available option is to buy directly from the soccer uniforms manufacturers. From them, you can pick the collection or just place the custom order. In this, they will create collection according to your needs and specifications. You will also get the flexibility to put your team name, player name, etc on the collection. Moreover, this is considered as the cost-effective approach to getting the best quality outfits.

To begin with, my children already lived here with their mother and stepfather. The varsity football team, the Stephenville Yellow Jackets, was the winningest Texas football team in the 90’s and my sons, along with their stepfather, urged me to come and see these kids play. “They are phenomenal!” I was assured. I went to watch them play as they won the Texas State Championships in 98 and 99. They WERE phenomenal! My youngest son played football at Stephenville High. His underclass teams won district and he played Varsity ball on a team that went to the Bi-District finals his Senior year. This was enough to get me to criss-cross the wide open spaces of Texas from Arlington, chasing after my son’s football games for four years, including quite a few contests right in his home town of Stephenville.

Game by game, the town was growing on me.

Some unusual things were happening there that caught my attention from my apartment in Arlington. For starters, on a Christian radio show I used to listen to, the host, Dawson McAllister, mentioned he would soon be speaking at a rally in…where else? Stephenville! Hmm. Intriguing. Turns out, my kids attended that rally. I found out later, most EVERYBODY’s kids attended.

Another happening that the Holy Spirit used to lure my attention to Stephenville was the war against prayer in the schools, particularly at sporting events and graduations. The reports were on virtually every nightly newscast. I noticed during my brief visits to town that there were many kids wearing a bright yellow t-shirt with the words “I Pray before I Play” emblazoned boldly upon the front. Following are some pieces of articles I found on the Internet, the likes of which I seemed to be hearing regularly back in the late 90’s. They speak for themselves, painting an accurate picture of the climate of those days:

“…the athletic field is rapidly turning into a culture war battle zone, as it did Friday night at a game in Stephenville, Texas, over the issue of school prayer. Education boards and school principals across Texas are struggling with federal guidelines on religious activities, including the ban on official school prayer. Earlier this year, the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that some religious references were permissible at school events like graduation ceremonies, but were inappropriate — not sufficiently sacred — during other activities like athletic contests. Jurists ruled that the hootin’ and hollerin’ of a down-home football standoff lacked the “singularly serious nature” of other functions, such as a graduation event.

“That didn’t stop a small group of 15 students on Friday night, though, from smuggling a portable public address system into a high school game in Stephenville, Texas, to lead supporters in public prayer…

“One of the “prayer warrior” students at Friday night’s game told the Stephenville Empire-Tribune paper, “This was not about football, it was about God. We decided to pray for God (sic).” According to an Associated Press report, local high school superintendent Larry Butler said that the impromptu prayer rally did not have support of authorities from the district. “With that being said,” added Butler, “I applaud them for doing something that they feel really strongly about. I think the entire community of Stephenville believes in school prayer.”

“So far, there are no other reports of spontaneous prayer outbreaks at weekend football games. News accounts suggest that most school district throughout Texas are abiding by the Circuit Court guidelines…”


“A number of “spontaneous” protest at football games have taken place in Stephenville. Last week, the Board of Trustees of the Stephenville Independent School District grappled with a policy which would permit a student selected by popular vote to deliver a pre-game “message,” provided certain rules were observed. The local Empire-Tribune newspaper noted: “The rules are that the purpose of the message is to encourage good sportsmanship and student safety and to promote the proper environment for the competition… The message may also be used to welcome or greet fans and the opposing team and/or to commend them for their achievements.

“While one board member mused that the new policy “would legally create an open forum for a period of time designated for the message and designate a place for the student message,” another member saw through the obfuscation. Referring to the 5th U.S. Circuit Court decision disallowing pre-game prayer, he told fellow board members: “This is the law today whether we like it or not. Until this is cleared up, I personally think we go against the law if we allow student prayer, or any prayer, before the game…” “


Students Defy Federal Judge on Prayer at High School Game

Stephenville, TX – The August 27th football season opener for the Stephenville High School Yellow Jackets was not only memorable for the lop-sided victory they had, but also for the courage shown by the student body and the fans in the crowd. A district federal judge had issued a decision forbidding prayer at public school gatherings, even if initiated by students. The students of Stephenville High believe this is a violation of their constitutional right to freedom of religion. The student body not only takes pride in being the defending 4A state champions, but in exercising their constitutional rights.

Before the opening kickoff, one of the students of Stephenville High grabbed a microphone and led a “spontaneous” prayer. Several students joined the young man on the sidelines, but what was even more powerful was the fact that not some, but all of the people in the stands stood up, removed their hats and joined in the prayer. Local news stations were there to cover the game and questioned the police and high school administrator as to what they planned to do about the “illegal” praying. There was no response from the police, but the high school administrator simply said that no actions were to be taken against the students. School officials also pointed out that since the school had not officially sanctioned the action, it could not be held legally liable for what happened.

The federal judge, upon hearing about the public prayer, said that the prayer was in violation of the constitutional separation of church and state. Some supporters of the students pointed out that the Constitution does not demand separation of church and state, but guarantees that there will be no laws made establishing any official religion or prohibiting the free exercise of religion. Students interviewed said that they planned to pray publicly at their next game.

One thing that most local reports on the event failed to mention was that it was not just the Stephenville students and supporters, but their football adversaries as well that stood up to be counted. The Weatherford High School Kangaroos, and all their fans, honored the brave individuals that dared to challenge the edict of a federal judge by standing with them during the prayer. With reporters scouring the crowd for an opposing view, not one person was found whom the prayer offended. Still the judge finds this act illegal and irresponsible!

What happens going forward from here depends on how determined the judge is to force his will on the people, and how determined the citizens of Stephenville are to defend their constitutional rights. For one night at least, this was seen as a victory for Texans in the exercise of their rights. As for Weatherford High, it was the one bright spot in a night that resulted in a 34-7 loss to the Yellow Jackets.



North of Dallas, Celina high school football fans prayed before a football game with a Christian school. The apparently coordinated prayer by fans, football players, cheerleaders, and band members violates the U.S. 5th Circuit Court of Appeals ban on school football prayers because football is not properly solemn enough for God.

Rev. John Mark Arrington, pastor at Lighthouse Full Gospel Church in Garland distributed 250 T-shirts with the slogan, “Celina Bobcats Pray Before They Play.” Arrington want students to obey “God’s law,” which justifies the growing rebellion of evangelicals against the U.S. Constitution.

In Stephenville, students brought their own sound system to football games and delivered a religious message using the equipment. There was no report that school officials took any action to prevent it.

In Midland, student-led prayers at football games still happen. School officials said the prayers would continue until someone filed a lawsuit to make them stop.


To pray–or not to pray” by Robert Bryce.

U.S. News & World Report, Sep 13, 1999 (Vol 127, No 10). Page 26.

Joel Allen and Alan Ward, two Stephenville, Texas, high school students, refused to be denied the tradition that surrounded their school’s football games. So to circumvent a federal court order barring use of a school’s public address system for prayer before high school football games, the two students borrowed a small speaker system and led the crowd in prayer, much to the fans’ delight.

The court ruling that affects Stephenville, Texas, handed down in February 1999, by the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has revived a national furor over the place of prayer in public school events. The court’s decision stated that student-led prayer during graduation ceremonies is allowed, but prayer during events such as football games is not since they do not represent a “solemn” enough occasion.

This latest ruling is one of several conflicting federal decisions on school prayer in recent years. In July 1999, the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that an Alabama school district could not ban student-initiated prayer at school activities, even when attendance of the event is mandatory.

The Fifth Circuit Court’s decision will most likely be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the meantime, some school districts in Louisiana and Texas say they will hold a moment of silence in lieu of prayer. Others vow to ignore the ruling altogether.


I was fascinated, waiting with baited breath for the next act of civil disobedience to come from the kids from this li’l ol’ town in Texas I’d never heard of until my kids moved there.

Finally, I became very ill and was faced with a difficult decision. I had to leave Arlington, a place I’d lived for 14 years and a Church of which I was a Charter Member and Assistant Pastor as well as a good-paying job where I held a prestigious position. But I couldn’t bend over to load my dishwasher, walk a flight of stairs or carry groceries to and from my car. I needed my children’s help.

Stephenville, here I come!

Crippled and in pain, finding a job was nearly impossible. I came very close to filing Medicaid papers and becoming a ward of the state. I couldn’t bring myself to do it. Where God guides, He provides and He regularly sent ravens to take care of my needs. My old college roommate lived in Dublin just 12 minutes away. He directed a publishing company to contact me as they needed an illustrator for a series of children’s books. That job alone, a job I could do from my kitchen table or even from propped -up pillows, was enough to help me make ends meet. Between chapters, recipients of my weekly email Bible broadcasts would occasionally come through with a love offering.

I was living from miracle to miracle until I received a call from my old college pal informing me that the local Chamber of Commerce was in need of a receptionist. I did not even know what a Chamber of Commerce actually did but I was feeling miraculously better, well enough to have applied for work at a local dairy reading the ear tags on cows just the day before. Funny, I can’t recall a job interview where a prospective employer asked if I’d mind occasionally getting “splattered with manure.” (I replied that it sounded like my last job. He didn’t laugh.) Any way, I went right to The Chamber and I’ll be there 5 years this July 7th. It’s a great job and the Lord has allowed me numerous opportunities to tap into the spiritual roots of the community from my position.


At the Chamber, I’ve been privileged to work for and with wonderful Christian people. Several years back, one lady I worked with had the idea of putting on an event that would give teens something to do after school ended in may. as we brainstormed, the event evolved into “The Extreme Thing.” In no time, other church members and ministers jumped on board. In the end, we had 29 churches involved, 9 bands, bouncy toys, organized games, 1,000 attendees and several ministers. The event was closed by a wonderful Church of Christ choir and their pastor. It was awesome!

In 2002 and 2003, I organized a July 4th parade entry which I called “The Declaration of Dependence.” I designed a T-shirt and matching banner and about 50 Christians suited up and took part. The next year, over 150 Christians took part from 11 different churches – including Hispanic Churches. We had the largest entry in the parade that year.

One day, a man from the Assembly of God Church took me to lunch. He had an idea for a door to door prayer ministry he called “Operation Jesus.” I designed a logo for a T-shirt and, in the past two years, hundreds of participants have prayed for virtually every dwelling place in town. We’re about to start over and the numbers of participating churches is increasing every time we go out.

A young Youth Minister from the Disciples of Christ had the vision to organize an event he called “The Unity Conference.” In the end, hundreds of believers attended from various denominations to listen to seven different ministers speak on a variety of subjects and worship together in song with several church worship teams. I was honored to have been one of those who ministered. Just a few months ago, I actually preached the Sunday morning services in that same church on two consecutive Sundays.

My own ministry has expanded to include opportunities to speak at the high school and the local college where I recently participated in a panel discussion on homosexuality in a grad level counseling/psych class. Last Sunday, I completed my 6th and final week of teaching at the First United Methodist Church. I’ve been invited back. The Pastor called me at work just today to thank me for “sharing my gift” with his congregation. Nice man.

The pastor from the local Cowboy Church – a Baptist group that has blossomed to 500 members in its first year – has asked that I come and teach the Cowboys about the cults. Though I’m not Baptist, I have taught too many times to count at the Sunday meetings of the local Baptist Ministry. I attend a weekly house church meeting that includes several Pentecostals, some Baptists and a couple of Catholics. We’ve prayed together and ministered to others and have seen miracles and spiritual gifts in operation.

Jesus prayed that we would be one as He and the Father are one. Unity commands a Heavenly blessing.


That’s how I got to town and what God’s shown me in the mean time. Has it been without its trials? Hardly. Aside from hate mail via my computer, I once visited a woman in the county jail and even helped arrange her release. She later accused me of a crime and filed a restraining order against me. Not only did that case never make it to trial, but that woman has been sent to the state jail for another crime. On top of that, there have been a few people who wouldn’t allow their kids to sit under my teaching because they learned I’ve been divorced. At least no one’s shooting.

Oh, one last bit of good news is this: I moved to a cabin in the woods and, when I met my wonderful wife, Barbara, we not only moved here and love it, but we bought a Victorian home in town that my parents moved into from Las Cruces, New Mexico and are managing as a rooming house. We call it Vanderbilt Place. Barb is a registered nurse and got a job at the hospital located just 2 blocks from my downtown office at The Chamber. I see all 4 of my kids, daughter-in-law and three grandchildren regularly. I can recall the times that I was always so all alone and sickly.

I’m not sure what it is the Lord is doing here in this wonderful little town but, knowing Him, I know it’s gonna be great! I encourage anyone reading this now to grow where you’re planted, regardless of circumstances. I’ve learned that anything we can see with human eyes is subject to change. Even at my sickest, I was mailing Christian Gospel tracts to Middle Eastern-sounding names from the phone book on the chance the recipients might be Muslim. I made it to the letter “J” as I recall. My stamp-licking tongue wasn’t broken, after all. Later, a dear friend gave me a good used computer and my email ministry was on its way. I STILL only type with one finger (40 wpm, not bad, huh?).

Now, scroll down and FORWARD the message. Rate it if you like.

Mod clothing is not defined by just a few specific clothes but these are some of the well known and iconic 1960s clothes that most Mods would have somewhere in their wardrobe.

Desert Boots

Desert Boots were worn casually by 1960s Mods as they went well with both jeans and also suits. They were usually a beige or light brown colour suede boot with two to three or sometimes four holes. The boot originated from the army desert boot but became fashionable in the fifties and early 60s with the Beatnik Culture. The Mods adopted the boots with branded versions being available from Clarks but other cheaper non branded versions could be found by the Mods who were prepared to look around. Clarks re-introduced the Desert Boot in their classic range just a few years ago.

Bowling Shoes

Mods started wearing bowling shoes even before the majority of bowling alleys had sprung up in England. They were usually made of coloured leather or sometimes suede. Bowling shoes were lightweight cool and comfortable for dancing in! The black and white colours were the most popular but they came in all colours including red white and blue. Shops in Carnaby street like Ben Sherman, Merc, and The Face all stock bowling shoes. They have been adopted by the first, second and now third generation of Mods.

Cycling Shirts

Mods started wearing cycling shirts back in the 1960s, and the shirts have long been associated with mod attire. The shirts were made of lightweight cotton, usually with stripes around a high zip up round collar. Cycling shirts would be brightly coloured and usually have either the sponsor or makers name emblazoned onto it; as football shirts do these days. As these shirts were made for cycling, they too were also obviously cool for dancing in. A cycling shirt, Harrington jacket and a pair of Levis would be a fairly classic look for a mod.

Boating Blazers

Boating Blazers are part of the Mod fashion. These smart jackets were made of cotton or sometimes silk or mohair! Boating blazers are a fitted look, with 3 buttons, small lapels and sometimes a ticket pocket sewn above the right hand pocket. Boating blazers were usually brightly coloured with vertical stripes. Jimmy the mod played by the actor Phil Daniels in the film Quadrophenia, which is about the life of a 1960s mod, is seen wearing a black and grey striped boating blazer in the film. They can be worn during the day or on a night out A very smart look for any self respecting mod who wants to stand out in the crowd.

Pork Pie n Trilby Hats

Pork pie n Trilby hats were worn by 1960s Mods on their Scooters before crash helmets became compulsory. These hats not only looked cool they kept your head warm too! Normally made from felt, they had a flat top, a short crown and an indentation all round. These hats were usually made in dark colours black, charcoal grey, or chocolate brown. The hats usually have a band of silky material in the same colour about an inch in diameter fitted around the width of the hat. Purdy, the black mod in the film Quadrophenia kept his supply of French blues (speed pills) under his hat. The use of speed and other Amphetamines were popular with Mods to help support their all night dancing and partying lifestyle.

Mod clothing is not as narrow as just a few specific items of vintage clothing but at the same time, these iconic clothes from the 1960s are easily identifiable with the mod scene and are still prevalent with the third generation of Mods. There are a lot of retro styles available today that have kept to the original look and style but also there is vintage clothing for those that want the original authenticity.

During exercise, your body relies on three basic energy systems: the anaerobic a-lactic system, the anaerobic lactic system, and the aerobic system. Depending on the sports played, athletes rely on one system more than the others. An understanding of the involved energy systems in a particular sport gives valuable information about the strength qualities necessary in that sport. This information gives the personal trainer or strength coach clues on how to conduct the strength training.


Anaerobic A-Lactic (ATP-CP) Energy System

The anaerobic a-lactic (ALA) system, also known as the ATP-CP, or adenosine triphosphate – creatine phosphate system, provides high bursts of start-up energy for activities that last less than ten seconds in duration. Athletes who compete in sports that require high amounts of short duration acceleration – shot-putters, weight lifters, American football linemen, gymnasts, or sprint-distance speed skaters use the anaerobic a-lactic system. The ALA system does not create energy for sufficient duration to create a great deal of waste products.

Anaerobic Lactic (Glycolytic) Energy System

The anaerobic lactic (AL) system (also known as fast glycolysis) provides energy for medium to high intensity bursts of activity that lasts from ten seconds to two minutes. Some American football skill positions, baseball players, soccer players, judokas, middle distance runners (400m-800m) and sprinters rely on this system. The anaerobic lactic system, as well as the ATP-CP system, are capable of high intensity levels, and do not rely on oxygen for fuel.

The primary difference between the two systems is in the capacity of the system. You can think of capacity as the amount of time that the system can work at peak output before dropping off. Whereas the ATP-CP system will only produce energy for 10 seconds, fast glycolysis works at capacity for as long as two minutes. As a result, waste products such as lactic acid accumulate in the blood and in muscle cells. A burning sensation in the muscle, shortness of breath, and fatigue are all symptoms of lactic acid build up.

Aerobic Energy System

The aerobic system is the most utilized of the three. It provides energy for low intensity activities that last anywhere from two minutes to a few hours. Unlike the other two systems, the aerobic system requires oxygen and takes much longer to overload. Sports and activities that use continuous sustained efforts such as long distance swimming, crew (rowing), and sea kayaking rely on the aerobic system.

In reality, most sports use a variety of energy systems, or at least the power (time to reach peak output) and the capacity (duration that peak output can be sustained) of the system. The only real exceptions are Olympic weight lifting and certain field events, such as hammer or shot put. Which energy system is most prevalent in a given sport dictates the training intent.


The training intent refers to the athlete’s desired outcome from training, whether it is relative strength, hypertrophy, or strength endurance. Every athlete has a training intent that is specific to his or her sport, which is shaped and defined by specific loading parameters.

Relative Strength

Relative strength is defined as strength relative to one’s body weight. For example, if a 150 lb person and a 200 lb person both lift 300 pounds in a given lift, the 150 lb person has a higher level of relative strength in that lift. Relative strength is critical for athletes who use the anaerobic a-lactic system and the anaerobic lactic acid system as their main sources of energy. Maximal strength and limit strength are synonymous with relative strength.

Hypertrophy Strength and Hypertrophy – The Important Difference

Hypertrophy strength – also called functional hypertrophy – is the increased ability to exert force as a direct result of greater functional mass, or muscle tissue. The term hypertrophy refers to the increase in size of muscle cells, as well as to the increase in the number of contractile (muscle) fibers.

Good examples of athletes who benefit from hypertrophy strength training are American football and rugby players. The high-contact nature of their sports demands that they have extra muscle tissue to serve as body armor. Bodybuilding is a sport that relies completely on hypertrophy training.

Hypertrophy relies on the principle of progressive overload, which states that the body adapts and becomes resistant to the same training load over time. In order to grow and make progress, one needs to constantly change the weights, reps, sets, and rest period.

It is important to understand that hypertrophy occurs, to some degree, at all levels of resistance training, BUT, the amount of hypertrophy an individual experiences at any intensity bracket is a function of their genetic predisposition and fiber type. Therefore, the greatest amounts of hypertrophy do not occur in the same intensity bracket that the greatest increases in strength, or the greatest increases in endurance, occur. This factor, and the ability to manipulate it to athletic advantage, is the most important concept in strength coaching today. ***

Hypertrophy strength is a function of the anaerobic lactic acid energy system.

Strength Endurance

Endurance athletes, such as marathon runners and rowers, are required to overcome a relatively low resistance for a prolonged period of time. The aerobic system is an efficient energy system that relies on oxygen for fuel. In reference to weight training, strength endurance is the ability to produce repeated muscular contractions with less than maximal weight-typically at loads below 75% of 1RM.

There is great variation in the loading parameters for relative strength, hypertrophy, and strength endurance. The loading parameters chosen should improve the strength of the involved energy system of the athlete, thus producing an athlete who is in shape for their sport.



Reps are short for repetitions, or the number of times that a movement is repeated at one time. For instance, a set of 10 pushups equates to ten reps in the pushup. The number of repetitions performed during a specific set of a workout determines the training effect. Neurological efficiency is achieved through training in the lower rep range and metabolic (muscular) adaptations are achieved through training with higher repetitions. The number of reps dictates all other aspects of strength training, namely the sets, the tempo, and the rest period.

After the initial assessment of an athlete/client, the qualified personal trainer will prescribe a repetition range based on the needs and goals of the client. For novice lifters, higher reps (12-20) and lighter loads are prescribed to teach the body new exercise movement patterns.


Sets describe a group of repetitions. For example, 3 sets of 10 reps in the pushup equates to three individual efforts of ten repetitions each. There is an inverse relationship between the number of sets and the number of reps in any given workout; the higher the number of reps, the lower the number of sets necessary to elicit the appropriate training response. Lower numbers of reps require higher numbers of sets.

For a beginner, 2-3 sets of 12-20 repetitions should be sufficient to teach the body how to move through different planes of movement. After the first 4-6 weeks, depending on the learning curve of the client, the personal trainer or strength coach should increase the number of sets of the workout. The client should then perform multiple sets of the prescribed exercise if strength is a major goal.

There is also an inverse relationship between the number of sets and time under tension.

Time Under Tension

Time under tension (abbreviated TUT) is the amount of time that a muscle or muscle group is put under stress during a single rep, set, or workout. For example, if a client performs a bicep curl and lifts the weight in 1 second and lowers it in 4, the time under tension for that repetition is 5 seconds. In this particular example, the TUT would be noted as 4010, where 4 seconds is the time it takes to eccentrically lower the weight, 0 seconds is the time of pause at the bottom position of the curl, 1 second is the time it takes to concentrically lift the weight, and the last 0 seconds is the pause at the top of the movement.

Time under tension is inversely proportional to both reps and sets. The more time that stress is placed on a muscle in one rep, the less reps and sets are necessary to produce the same training effect.

Rest Intervals

Rest intervals, the time of rest between sets, are determined by a number of factors:

* training goal

* training intensity

* fitness level of the client

Training Goal, Training Intensity, and Rest Period

The training goal is, simply, the desired training effect. It is closely related to the training intensity, in that the goal dictates the intensity, which in turn dictates the rest period.

The training intensity can be described as the percentage of 1RM, or repetition maximum, that one exercises at. The more intense the workout, the higher the percentage of 1RM that one works, and the longer the corresponding rest period must be in order for the central nervous system to recover.

There exists a great deal of misunderstanding in the fitness industry about intensity, which is a word typically used to describe workouts that are hard. A workout can be very difficult without being intense – circuit weight training is very difficult and taxing to the body, but it is not intense, by the strict definition of the word.

Lastly, the fitness level of the client cannot be overlooked when assigning inter-set rest intervals. An untrained individual needs more recovery time than an experienced lifter. Conversely, an experienced trainee can be made more advanced once he has reached his appropriate level of strength by progressively reducing his rest period, so that he produces the same amount of work in less time.

Wouldn’t it be great if you can have access to all prediction football? It would let you in on a lot of information and eventually let you pick the winning team for next game. That will surely make you lots of money.

So what gives in football betting? Would you really win the money?

Prediction football games are simply predictions. There is no guarantee that this is what exactly will happen to a game. So before you start betting, you have to make sure that you know what to do and what you’re getting into.

First off, you might need the assistance of a pro. Before you could actually place wager, you have to study each player. You have to make sure that you know the strengths and the weaknesses of each team, and to achieve the knowledge for this, it takes a lot of time and effort. Oh you don’t have that, but there are people who are very much well-versed in the game. These are handicappers.

Taken from the word, handicappers would give you a heads up on what could happen to a game. This is based on years and years of experience. This is based on long hours of studying teams and players. They would help you get a glimpse of what bigger possibilities are in a game.

Having a handicapper isn’t actually required. Some people refuse to take help from handicappers since it would cost them money. Handicappers would charge a fee for their services or perhaps a cut of the winnings. You don’t really have to hire a handicapper. It would just save you a lot of trouble studying team rank movements and other information when you have a handicapper on board.

Also, it would pay a lot if you would read on the subject. The internet has an abundant supply of websites and articles that will tell you all about the ins and outs of betting on prediction football. It would tell you the advantages and disadvantages of all of your possible bets. They let you in on secrets of the trade, and everybody who is getting into the business would need that.

It pays to be well-versed in a subject. It’s like being a scholar in football betting. The more that you know, that more that you understand. If you’re a novice and are just getting started, you can actually check out websites that would allow you to place imaginary wagers. It’s like practice betting. They give you virtual money. With this money, you place an imaginary wager. And see how you fare. Of course, you would have to practice your skills in football predictions. This will let you have a feel of how it is to place a real wager and put real money on the line.

There is always no guarantee that prediction football will make you win sure money. Betting and gambling in general has no guarantees, and it takes a lot of experience to be sure that you are betting on good stakes and are getting a good percentage of winning.

The Adidas Samba has a long history of excellence in the shoe industry and for most people it is one of the most loved shoe available. While this shoe started out as a shoe made specifically for soccer players, it has grown and developed into much more than that. It is now worn by thousands of people as a comfortable everyday sneaker. Adidas has managed to retain the great functionality as a soccer shoe while adding in the trendy looks and feel of a casual everyday use.

When looking for new shoes there are hundreds of different options from a wide range of different companies. Most different shoe companies offer some excellent choices for either sports use or everyday casual use but few are able to combine these two things into one shoe as effectively as the Adidas Samba. Shoe companies tend to create very targeted shoes which they want people to use for only one thing. For example, the Nike Total 90 series of shoes makes for an excellent soccer shoe, but they are not intended to be used for walking down the street or wearing to work.

Nike will make another shoe for that in the hopes that you will buy both pairs, thus increasing their sales. The Adidas samba has really taken a different approach which has provided for a much more versatile shoe. The Samba is one of the most popular soccer shoes in history, but over the years it has also grown to be an extremely popular casual use shoe. Whether you’re just going for a walk down the street, heading to the store or even going out for dinner, these shoes are perfect.

People know that they can wear one shoe for all sorts of different events which makes them very popular and even a great way to save some money. Having the option to use this impressive shoe for all sorts of things makes them great. This has also given the Adidas Samba somewhat of a loyal following with many people choosing to get several pairs of shoes in their line. The Samba has several versions from the classic Samba to the Samba 85, and even the classy looking Samba K which is made from Kangaroo leather.

Each of the shoes in this popular line provides the same great quality and feel but has a different look to them. Even within each of these lines you can often get the shoe in a wide range of colors which helps make them appeal to more and more consumers. Adidas truly knows how to make a popular shoe and provide all the different options people want in any type of shoe and nowhere is this more obvious than with the Adidas Samba series.

It is no wonder that the Adidas Samba is the second best selling shoe Adidas has ever made and is one of the oldest models of they have. With over 35 million pairs sold over the last 50 plus years and no signs of slowing down it is clear that this great shoe is the best of its type in the whole industry.