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The National Council of Education, Research and Training (NCERT) distribute textbooks to students at the primary and secondary level. These books are highly useful for CBSE students and here are six reasons for teachers recommending them.

Clear concepts

To get good marks in examinations, it is important for students to have a clear concept about a subject and its related topics. Highly qualified teachers with years of teaching experience in various schools and colleges write CBSE NCERT books. The concepts are explained in a clear and concise way that gives students correct and accurate information. Worked examples,

info graphics and formulas Follow each topic for students to have a solid grasp on the subject.

Special focus on essential topics

There is a special focus on essential topics in CBSE NCERT books. Based on the syllabus, these topics are covered in details. It helps students in their preparation and aids them to score well. These books highlight important topics of each chapter in different subsections with multiple examples and there is no room for any confusion.

Improve self-confidence

Another primary reason behind the recommendation of these books is that it improves the self-confidence of students. Tough analytical problems are explained in a lucid manner with diagrams and step-by-step procedure. There are vital questions in the form of fill in the blanks, match the following and one-word answers at the end of every chapter. With a little guidance, one can easily answer difficult questions during examination.

Platform for competitive exams

These books act as a platform for competitive exams like JEE Mains, AIPMT, NEET and others. For subjects like Mathematics, sums from the above-mentioned competitive exams are added to help students prepare beyond board examinations. In fact, a number of questions in competitive exams are directly picked from these books. Students need not buy additional books if they kindly follow CBSE NCERT books.

Easy and simple language

Experts write these books in an easy language after an extended research. With simple language, it becomes easier for students to understand a subject and its various chapters. They save a lot of time and allow one to assist complex topics easily.

Incorporate the latest syllabus

Another major reason for teachers to recommend these books is that they incorporated the latest syllabus prepared by CBSE. The books are upgraded from time to time with the latest information that helps one to remain ahead in the competition. As these books strictly adhere to the CBSE curriculum, students can easily answer any question asked in board examinations.

January and February oftentimes feel rather flat, especially when the weather's cold and miserable. There may be little to look forward to, so it's up to us to become proactive, herald a few changes and inject a little sunshine into our lives.

– Get something in the diary. Finances may be strained after Christmas, but there are still ways to socialize with friends. Arrange a meal and ask everyone to donate a dish and / or bottle. That way you can enjoy a fun time for relatively little expense. Suggest everyone dresses up to make the evening extra-special.

– Have you heard of a safari supper, where one course is eaten at each person's house and then everyone moves on? Again a fun, inexpensive and unusual way to brighten up the darker evenings.

– Add your name to several mailing lists. There are often free or two-for-the-price-of-one deals going around, especially after Christmas. Or look out for free or inexpensive concerts, exhibitions and events that appeal enough to prompt you and your pals to go.

– Invest in your home. Add some color, bright prints, warm fabrics, lovely fragrances, so that your home is a pleasurable place to be, whether you're on your own or with friends. Often local markets and craft fairs offer unusual, inexpensive items that can add a special touch to your home. Lighting is especially important during the winter months so introduce lamps, side lights and even candlelight at this time of year.

– Board games and cards can bring a lot of fun to colder, darker evenings and can become an enjoyable part of your winter activities. Find your competitive side and plan a get-together at virtually no cost.

– Do not forget to include opportunities for exercise and fresh air. Weekdays might be difficult to arrange but make the most of the weekends, with outdoor strolls in the park, treasure hunts and nature walks. Follow with a relaxing pub lunch or a warm soak in the bath with a mug of hot chocolate. Or arrange a game of rounds or football with friends and neighbors.

– Make the most of this season's fruits and vegetables and enjoy some healthy, colorful meals. Rediscover the joys of your slow-cooker and leave delicious stews, casseroles and nourishing soups cooking all day.

– Spend an afternoon going through your old photographs, vinyl records and clearing out your clutter. You may even earn yourself a little money by doing so. Physical, mental or emotional clutter can bog us down and interrupt our flow. Be decisive and use the time well.

– Review your aspirations for the coming year . Have they already started to flag? Write them at the front of your diary or notebook and keep your intentions regularly in mind.

– Intermittent rewards and trips are a good way to encourage you out of hibernation mode. Monitor your oncoming goals and give yourself credit for each month's achievements. Celebrate each stepping-stone rather than focus solely on the ultimate goal.

– Be gentle with yourself if your resolutions slip or you do not achieve the same as others. Start again and get back in the zone. Book another driving lesson or training session. Be motivated by others but do not compare yourself and your achievements to their heads. Everyone has very different stories and situations.

Appreciate each season's charms and enjoy opportunities to invest in yourself and your quality of life.

A playroom is a child's treasured space in the house – somewhere all his own. It is different from your child's bedroom, which has multiple functions: sleep, homework, etc. The playroom is aptly named – it is a room designed for one activity only … play! While not every house can support a separate room just to devote to play, you can still create a special space for your child with all the same functions. Where to find space? If you do not have a bonus room or unused room in your home to design as the playroom, try creating your child's special place by utilizing a separate corner of the guest room, a portion of the basement, a section of your dining room ( typically this room goes unused except for special occasions anyway), or a corner of the family room. Once you decide on a special place to be your child's playroom you will want to decorate and outfit the playroom with these 3 must-have playroom furniture and accessories:

  1. Durable Lighting – Wherever you locate the playroom, you'll want lighting that's protected from the occasional football toss. The best bet is a sturdy overhead lighting fixture. This type of lighting is not only functional and practical, but it provides a wonderful decorating opportunity. The must-have item is colorful and unique switchplate and outlet covers. Maybe with such a fun cover, your child will not forget to turn off the lights when they exit the room!
  2. E asy-care Flooring – A durable, stain resistant rug is a must-have item for your child's playroom. This is not the place to skimp. Your investment in padding and carpet upgrades will be well worthwhile as your child grows and his play gets rougher and messier. If your play area is in a designated space of another room, choose a colorful and comfy floor rug for your child to play on. A separate rug also helps to design the play area and make your child feel that this area is his own.
  3. Fun Children's Table and Chairs Set – This is a must-have item for any playroom or play area. This is the place where your child will create art masterpieces and handcraft loving birthday cards and 'I Love You' notes. You will find a large selection of beautiful and well-made table and chairs sets for kids available so take your time and choose a set that is functional yet colorful and decorated according to your child's individual tastes and preferences. Make sure the set you choose is comfortable, movable and easy-to-clean.

The Tom Brady cards are very popular among the collectors and there are many versions of the card available. The values of these rookie cards depend on the condition and availability and are all graded by the PSA.

Tom Brady is said to be the most glamorous of the NFL boys and his cards are definitely the most collected cards of all times. He has very successfully maintained his status as one of the best and these rookie cards are the most collected. The cards have a good value for the collectors and the value is determined not only by the condition but also by the availability of the cards. There are various versions of the Tom Brady cards available and some of them are the high-end cards and are very popular since 2001. The values of the cards also vary according to the conditions mentioned above and the price can be anything from $70 to $150 and in some occasional cases it can be anything from $400 to a whopping $4000,000!

There are various versions of the Tom Brady Cards available and can be numbered to 114 including the Tom Brady autograph rookies, rookies, limited serial numbered cards and also the Super Bowl Memorabilia cards with autograph. The cards are of different values depending on the type and how they are graded by the experts. The higher valued cards are more of a collectible item and are the most preferred ones. The cards are first graded by the sports collectible service and experts and once the cards are graded they are protected in a sealed covering that have foils and embossing and will protect the cards from further damage in an archival quality case.

The Tom Brady cards are also popular because of the story of this rookie who made it from rags to riches at the beginning of his football career. He became very popular in the 2000 NFL and later on the New English Patriots called his name in the sixth round which was 199th overall. The Tom Brady cards became all the more popular when he added the Super Bowl Rings and the MVP to his already established career. He is a darling of the collectors mainly because for all his wins and not for his stats. Also his fairy tale lifestyle and numerous dates and affairs with celebrities have kept him in the limelight.

This is the story of a brand which has matured over the past 100 years into a global superbrand and an example of the power of branding regardless of time, politics, race or culture. It helped heal the wounds after a bitter war over a century ago and caused national sportsmen to rebel against their own Governments and later united a nation after apartheid was dismounted and, as a result, yielded what is broadly viewed as one of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments in history. Today, after repeated onslaughts by politicians with racial quota systems and unsuccessful threats to change its name, the brand has emerged stronger than ever, and stands proudly for winners and the ultimate respect a sporting side could earn: world champions.

The origins of the Springbok name and brandmark

The South Africa national rugby union team, commonly referred to as the Springboks or Boks for short in English, Springbokke or Bokke for short in Afrikaans and Amabokoboko in Zulu, has won the Rugby World Cup twice (1995 and 2007) and is currently ranked number one in the International Rugby Board (IRB) World Rankings.

The Springboks play in green and gold jerseys, and especially their emblems are the Springbok , a South African antelope which is also South Africa's national animal, and the king protea, South Africa's national flower. The Springbok (Afrikaans and Dutch: spring = jump; bok = antelope or goat) is a medium-sized brown and white gazelle standing about 75 cm high. They can reach running times of up to 80 kilometers per hour. The Latin name marsupialis derives from a pocket-like skin flap extending along the middle of the back from the tail onwards.

When the male springbok shows off his strength and fitness to attract a mate, or to ward off predators, he starts off in a stiff-legged trot, leaping with an arched back into the air (almost to three meters) every few paces, and lifting the flap along his back. That makes the long white hairs under the tail stand up in a conspicuous fan shape. This ritual is known as pronking in Afrikaans or "strutting", meaning to boast or show off.

Springbok inhab the dry inland areas of south and south-western Africa. They used to be very common, forming some of the largest herds of mammals ever witnessed, when millions of migrating Springbok formed herds hundreds of kilometers long. Extensive hunting and farm knives, which blocked their migratory routes have significantly diminished their numbers. Springbok get their water needs from the food they eat, and can survive without drinking water through dry seasons or even dry years.

The springbok was a national symbol of South Africa under white minority rule (including the period prior to the establishment of apartheid) and appeared on the emblem of the South African Air Force, the brandmark of South African Airways (for which it remains their radio call sign) and the coat of arms of South Africa. These have since been replaced by new designs.

Historically, the term Springbok was given to any team or individual representing South Africa in any international sporting competitions. The Springbok emblem was dropped in favor of the king protea when South Africa's first democratic government came into power in 1994. However, the rugby union team kept the name and brandmark of the Springbok after the intervention of the then President, Nelson Mandela, who did so as a gesture of goodwill to the mainly white and large Afrikaner rugby supporters. The South African cricket side is now commonly referred to as the Proteas.

The Springboks have played international rugby since 1891 when a British Isles side toured South Africa. At that time, the South African rugby team had worn myrtle green shirts, which the then captain borrowed from his Old Diocesan club. Rugby was so popular that in 1902 there was a temporary ceasefire in the Anglo-Boer War so that a game could be played between the British and Boer forces. The Anglo-Boer War was waged from 1899 until 1902 between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State. The game had spread among the Afrikaner population through prisoner-of-war games during the Anglo-Boer War.

The Springbok name and brandmark also date from the 1906-1907 tour of Britain, a trip which helped heal wounds after the Anglo-Boer War and instilled a sense of national pride among South Africans. To prevent the British press from inventing their own name for the South African rugby side, the team captain chose the Springbok to represent his side. After this, the emblem was worn on the left breast pocket of team blazers.

The 1976 Soweto riots and rebel tours

By the Second World War, New Zealand and South Africa had established themselves as rugby's two greatest teams. In 1976, the All Blacks tour – shortly after the Soweto riots – attracted international condemnation and 28 countries boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics in protest. The next year, the Commonwealth of Nations signed the Gleneagles Agreement that discouraged any sporting contact with South Africa. Due to growing international pressure, the segregated South African rugby unions merged in 1977.

In 1986, a rebel tour took place, in response to the scrapping of the planned All Black tour of South Africa after an interdict by the New Zealand High Court in 1985. The team was called the Cavaliers (but advertised in South Africa as the All Blacks) was not sanctioned by the New Zealand Rugby Football Union, but contracted of all but two of the original squad selected.

In 1989, a World XV sanctioned by the International Rugby Board went on a mini-tour of South Africa. All the traditional rugby nations, bar New Zealand, supplied players to the team, which considered of 10 Welshmen, eight Frenchmen, six Australians, four Englishmen, one Scot and one Irishman.

Although South Africa was instrumental in creating the Rugby World Cup competition, the Springboks did not compete in the first two World Cups in 1987 and 1991 because of the anti-apartheid sporting boycotts of South Africa. From 1990 to 1991, the legal apparatus of apartheid was disbanded and the Springboks were readmitted to international rugby in 1992.

One of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments

The team made its World Cup debut in 1995, when the newly democratic South Africa hosted the tournament and there was a remarkable surge of support for the Springboks among the white and black communities in the lead-up to the tournament. This was the first major event to be held in what Archbishop Desmond Tutu had dubbed "The Rainbow Nation", with South Africans uniting behind the "one team, one country" slogan. The Springboks defeated the All Blacks in the final, which is now remembered as an iconic moment in the history of the sport, and a watershed moment in the post-apartheid nation-building process.

Nelson Mandela, wearing a Springbok rugby jersey and baseball cap, presented the World Cup to the South African captain, Francois Pienaar, a white Afrikaner, to the joy of the capacity crowd. The moment is thought by some to be one of the most famous finals of any sport and was listed as one of the 100 Greatest Sporting Moments on a British television program. The gesture was widely seen as a major step towards the reconciliation of white and black South Africans. Notably, the day after the World Cup victory, the Zulu word for Springbok, Amabokoboko , appeared as the headline of the Sowetan 's sports page.

A series of crises followed from 1995 to 1997, with allegations by politicians that South African rugby was an unreformed element of the new Rainbow Nation. In July 2006, Springbok coach Jake White told the press he had been unable to pick some white players for his squad "because of transformation" – a reference to the ANC government's policies of trying to redress the racial imbalances in national sport.

The Springboks won the World Cup for a second time in 2007 and joined Australia as the only other national team to have won the trophy twice. This also provided the southern hemisphere's dominance, with five out of six titles to date.

South Africa's World Cup-winning side of 1995 fielded only one non-white player. This trend continued in the team's biggest matches of the 1999 and 2003 World Cups and, in the 2007 World Cup final, the team fielded only two non-white players. Despite a quota system intended to encourage provincial teams to field non-white players, and the fact that there are more non-white than white rugby players in South Africa, many politicians believed that the pace of transformation was too slow. South African Rugby Union president Oregan Hoskins thought there were too few non-white players in the 2007 World Cup squad and, in 2008, the first non-white coach was appointed. The political pressure on rugby coaches and administrators to select non-white players has been strong and, as a result, 16 of the 35 new Springboks appointed by former coach Jake White were non-white.

Politicians will always loose the battle with the brand

In late 2008, the Springbok brand again came under fire from politicians. The parliamentary sports committee of the ruling African National Congress (ANC) made some serious comments and demanded that the Springbok emblem and name be dropped in favor of the king protea. This sparked an outcry from supporters of the national rugby team, which is a source of deep pride, especially to Afrikaners. Some people argue that racial barriers were broken in 1995 after South Africa's victory, when former president Nelson Mandela lifted the World Cup trophy while wearing a Springbok jersey, but the committee noted that Mandela's action was a matter of convenience rather than conviction.

No doubt, this last debate had had a lot to do with the recent ANC split and with the resultant newly formed Congress of the People (COPE) party emerging as the latest opposition in the elections held in South Africa in April 2009. COPE was founded by former ANC members after the ANC's national conference in 2007 resolved in the election of Jacob Zuma over Thabo Mbeki, the then South African President, as the ANC president.

The split also revealed underlying ethnic tensions between Zulu and Xhosa speakers, represented by Jacob Zuma and Thabo Mbeki, respectively, and their different philosophies. Mbeki pursued neoliberal economic policies and Zuma, who would become the future President of South Africa, was more left-wing and populist and has a closer relationship with the popular Congress of South African Trade Unions and the South African Communist Party.

While we are on the subject of politics and name changes, why was South Africa not renamed Azania after the 1994 elections? Azania was at the time the name of choice among revolutionary black African nationalists, and it appeared in the names of revolutionary groups such as the Azanian People's Organization (AZAPO), the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania and the Socialist Party of Azania. The truth is that the ANC had always been opposed to this name because of its association with the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, which had split from the ANC.

And why was the poorly performing Bafana Bafana (the Boys), South Africa's official national soccer team, not mentioned the Proteas? It was rumored that England coach Sven-Göran Eriksson had been offered US $ 3-million (ZAR30-million) to coach Bafana Bafana for the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. Instead, the former Brazil coach, Carlos Alberto Parreira, landed the contract for US $ 10-million (ZAR100-million) but resigned in April 2008 for "family reasons".

The latest Springbok debacle is a case of some ignorant and very confused politicians trying to score brownie points at the expense of South Africa and a global brand born more than a century ago. Apartheid officially died in 1994 and if the Springbok brand was seen as part of that era, it would have been scrapped then. How can it still be offensive 15 years later? Proof of the brand's popularity among black South Africans is that more Springbok apparel and memorabilia are sold in Soweto, South Africa's largest black township, than in the predominately white suburbs of Johannesburg.

Silas Nkanunu, former SARU president and one of the first blacks to be appointed to this position, stated in an interview with Agence France-Presse (AFP) in December 2008 that he believed changing the Springbok brand would not address the real issues affecting the sport's development and its promotion among blacks. "The move smacks of political power play. Black clubs are in dire need of financial assistance, which is slowing the development of talent," said Nkanunu.

The truth is that the Springbok brand has become a superbrand in the global sport world, is untouchable and has transcended politics and the politicians. It earns millions of dollars in sponsorship deals and, fortunately, it does not legally belong to the South African government but to the SA Rugby Union (SARU), previously known as the Rugby Football Union (SARFU), which registered the trademark in 1996 The global audience does not view the Springbok brand as a political symbol but as a great sport icon, one that epitomises world champions and an undeniable national passion for rugby.

Moreover, the rough and tumble game of rugby is difficult to associate with a female floral symbol such as the protea, and the symbol of a flower would be incongruent with the brand. Next, the politicians may want to change the jerseys to a powder pink to match the color of the king protea. Wait, I am wrong! The current colors for the Springboks, Bafana Bafana and the Proteas are green and golden yellow, which, it just so happens, are the colors of the ruling ANC party.

Politicians who have racial hang-ups should stay stay out of sport. Their involvement in a quota system has provided disastrous as is clear from the pathetic performance of South African athletes at the Beijing Olympics. After all, sport is about who is the best and wins. It is not about a quota system or who is the blackest or whitest. It takes a long time to train and coach great sportsmen and sportswomen and is not a political event like the typical unfair (s) election so common in Africa.

Today, South Africa plays in green jerseys with a gold collar, white shorts and green socks. Their jersey is embroidered with the SA Rugby brandmark and the flag of South Africa on the sleeve. In December 2008, the South African Rugby Union chose to go the dreaded co-branding route and to place the Protea on the left side of the Springboks' jersey, in line with other South African national teams, and move the Springbok brandmark to the right of the jersey. The new jersey was worn for the first time during the British and Irish Lions tour of South Africa in June and July 2009. The funny thing is, nobody noticed the new blossom and the Springboks were even more popular than ever, especially after their series victory over the Lions.

Politicians should take note that it does not matter if the jersey has an intricate step-and-repeat-pattern all over it, containing thousands of proteas. The South African national rugby union team will always be referred to as the Springboks because the brand will always be stronger than the politicians, regardless of all their politicking.

Currently, there are two popular procedures that businesses can use to customize athletic jerseys with a specific name and number on the back of the jersey. Screen printing, also known as silk printing, is a very early method of printing whereby ink is passed through a mesh screen onto the jersey. Basically, the screen is pressed onto the jersey, the name and number is carved out of the screen, ink is poured onto the screen and a roller presses the ink through the carved out name and number openings onto the jersey.

Sublimation, on the other hand, is a more modern digital form of printing. The sublimation process begins with the design of the custom name and number in a picture creating and editing software such as Corel or Adobe Photoshop. Next, the process involves the use of a computer printer which applies heat to the jersey and impresses the name and number onto the jersey. Most specifically, sublimation uses an ink which, when transferred onto the polyester jersey under high heat and pressure, chemically converts from a liquid ink into a gas ink and actually permeats the jersey’s fabric and solidifies into the back of the jersey. Consequently, the jersey is permanently altered since the name and number is actually engrained into the jersey.

There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to using sublimation over screen printing which include:

1. With sublimation, the ink actually permeates the fabric whereas with screen printing, the ink is just pressed into the fabric. So, with sublimation the customized name and number on the jersey is permanent and will not fade or peel off. There is a possibility that the name and number on a jersey that has undergone screen printing will fade or peel.

2. The costs of manufacturing and creating a sublimated polyester jersey is likely to be higher than the costs of doing a comparable screen printed jersey. The costs of sublimation are likely to decrease in time however, as it now stands, sublimation is still relatively expensive as a printing process. For printing a high volume of jerseys with similar names and numbers, screen printing is preferable since it is more cost effective.

3. The feel of a sublimated jersey and a screen printed jersey will be different. If you run your hand over the back of a jersey that has undergone the screen print process, you will be able to feel the thickness of the ink on top of the fabric. This is not the case with a sublimated jersey.

If you would like more information, or would like to see samples of jerseys that can be screen printed or sublimated and customized towards your sport, whether it is soccer, basketball or volleyball, please go to www.myjersey.ca.

Thank you, Sam

What business axiom or management principle have you discovered to help you live better, work smarter, or to understand organizations in a way that is unique, funny or provides that rare but special “ah ha” moment?

An example of a well known business axiom is the famous “Peter Principle” (1) that states: “People rise to their level of incompetence.” Explaining how incompetent people can achieve executive and high level political positions without any management or leadership skills provides some understanding to why so many businesses and governments may fail. There are many corollaries to this intriguing concept that may explain government and business poor performance. Perhaps major decisions also rise to their level of incompetence. That is, the more critical a decision, the more probable is that it will be taken away from the people with expertise and be decided either in a steering committee (to avoid any accountability) or at the C-Suite or government cabinet level where truly awful decisions are sometimes rendered out of ignorance. While this principle is meant to foster discussion about the follies of some bureaucracies, all of us can relate to those major business blunders caused by executives who thought they knew better. Remember new Coke, the Edsel and the infamous business failures at Enron, Arthur Anderson, Lehman Bros. and Bear Sterns? Government failures are even more common as evidenced by the Arab Spring uprisings and most of Europe facing serious budget deficits and even a European Union currency collapse.

Talking to a high level bureaucrat who was going to announce the immediate closure of a major call center, I replied that determining its future call distribution would be critical as this location had nearly 400 staff at work. He responded that I was incorrect and that no one was working there. Stunned by his lack of knowledge, I replied that I had just returned from a visit last week, and that we had over 400 active staff conducting business there. A bureaucrat located remotely and especially at headquarters can be very dangerous to sound decision-making!

My personal favorite business axiom is Parkinson’s Law, written by C. Northcote Parkinson (2) in 1954: “Work expands to the time available.” It is the only management principle I can remember with clarity from my four collegiate years of study in administration because I have experienced the relationship between work and time is both elastic and unpredictable. It is an irreverent but insightful view on how workload is not proportional to staffing within bureaucratic organizations. It reminds us that in our world, one must understand human behavior, embrace humor and recognize a tendency by people to make foolish decisions especially when emotions take control from basic common sense.

All students recognize the value of Parkinson’s Law. It is critical to determine how much time a task will take or it will naturally expand to two, three or more times the actual amount of time needed. As students we quickly learned this fact after laboring several days on an essay while as seniors, we would start a project two hours before the deadline with surprisingly positive results. While this work-time relationship is well known, fewer people are applying it to their organizations. Most business schools, businesses and certainly nearly all governments have forgotten the importance of the work time relationship. One only has to look at the state of governments across the globe to recognize that the tendency to grow bureaucracies is fundamental as growth ignores any workload or reason. Greece currently faces serious financial ruin because its expanding public bureaucracy became unsustainable. Thus a competent bureaucrat is not rewarded when he keeps quiet and works to cut staff, but is expected to continue to operate regardless of workload increases. The incompetent bureaucrat cannot accomplish anything but a poor record, but his constant complaints inevitably bring forth additional staff. He continues to complain and soon he is managing a department double the size of the competent bureau chief down the hall. The bureaucratic nature of the local department of motor vehicles demonstrates how work expands to the time available as these organizations despite years of practice and computer conversions and upgrades still demonstrate a total lack of logic and efficiency. Their avoidance of any level of customer service is legendary.

Another more serious and insidious example of Parkinson’s Law’s is the bureaucrat’s tendency to cause complexity. Take the process of how America’s laws are codified and regulated. Whether it is the new health care law now under review for its constitutionality, the new Dodd-Frank banking law and its thousands of pages of regulations, or the proposed changes to the enormously complex tax code, the means to create law in America has become the epitome of bureaucracy and unintended consequences. It does explain why there are so many lawyers and accountants and how American society creates sufficient work to keep them all employed on administering laws much too complex for the public to comprehend.

Generating complexity in government is probably due to the number of lawmakers who must find something to do with their time. Instead of seeking ways to simplify work, it seems they want to pass more laws and make life even more complicated.

Parkinson’s Law explains why the two of the most basic of government functions, the collection of taxes and the provision of public health care continues to become even more complex and expensive. Just try to explain to a European how American’s calculate their taxes or how to select an employee health care plan. After two hours with my Belgium daughter-in-law trying to select a health plan and explain income taxes, it was clear that our systems are indeed irrational.

To reduce a government agency, simplify our tax code or make health care more manageable will supposedly cause a calamity of epic proportions. The austerity plans in Europe and now occurring at local and state governments is yet to be embraced by our federal government that seems to always find a reason to ignore its committee recommendations and defer decisions by kicking the most difficult and important issues down the road. This ability to ignore responsibility is probably why there is friction between American business and government. In most societies the sovereign bureaucracy joins and supports business. In America there is a distrust of government going back to the Revolutionary War and our protection of individual liberties. Government work also has different incentives. Civil servants are not supposed to be resource efficient, but expected to spend all the money in their budgets or face a draconian cut in next year’s funding and resources. Government growth demands more revenue to operate so higher taxes are needed. Business firms seek profits so work diligently to avoid taxes and focus on efficiencies and cost cutting so the two institutions’ goals are traditionally at opposite poles. The incredible growth in global, federal, state and local governments and their excessive spending demonstrates Parkinson’s thesis that bureaucracies and agencies will proliferate even if they no longer have a reason to exist.

We find many examples of the Peter Principle and/or Parkinson Law in our business and governmental experience. Many hope for some easy solution to the growth of inefficient government and society’s complexity. Perhaps if Congress would pass a law that stated all laws and regulations should be limited to one page, we could start untangling the complexity in our health care system and tax code. Of course the lobbyists, departments and the stakeholders who benefit from such inefficiencies would prohibit any movement toward simplicity.

The hope that technology would resolve the bureaucratic problems just makes it easier to “cut and paste” more information into the process so that all laws and compliance take more pages to argue a simple point. The environmental impact report, for example, of a new football stadium in Los Angeles was over 10,000 pages and cost $27 million to produce. It is interesting that the original Los Angeles Coliseum was built in 1923 for only $950,000. Here is one more example of a regulatory process without restraint or reasonable limits. The typical LA resident will probably not be able to afford to attend the game when football returns to LA in 2020, 2030 or…

The cost of future football in Los Angeles is insignificant, however, compared to the waste and cost of administering American complex tax code or managing our fragmented and complex health care system. Unfortunately such complexity in health care shifts the burden to the people most at risk without the knowledge to navigate and find optimal care: The uninsured, the elderly, the sick, the poor and the children. The tragedy of a systematic, fragmented and profoundly uncoordinated health care system is that the quality of care is seriously degraded and uneven. We are notified by letter that our doctor will no longer accept our PPO health insurance, cannot use the local hospital, that the lab is not an approved provider and that our premiums have increased again.

The impact of the complex tax code may not be as severe to a citizen’s health, but it certainly creates unnecessary fiscal stress to a people and a country already unable to live within its means. Each year it seems we have more uncertainty, more interaction with our tax accountants, the state tax authorities and IRS as they add more complex rules to the process. Managing our financial life has become more difficult, and the ultimate result is more stress and doubt. So stay healthy so you will have the time and energy to calculate and pay your taxes! Just remember Parkinson Law and don’t start preparing your taxes too soon or you will waste several weeks of time better spent exercising and staying healthy.


1. Peter, Laurence J.; Hill, Raymond (1969). The Peter Principle: Why Things Always go Wrong. New York: William Morrow and Company.

2. Parkinson, C. Northcote; (1954). Parkinson’s Law and Other Studies in Administration, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

When writing a three to six-minute comedy skit to perform at church, school or some other organization, you need to move quickly into your plot and the theme of your skit. There’s little time for developing funny characters.

But if your audience doesn’t have some level understanding of your funny characters, your comedy skits will be dull and lifeless one-liners with no depth or the emotion that creates conflict and drives it meaningfully forward.

Therefore, your audience needs some idea of where a funny character is coming from to understand the motivation behind what they say and do. So use these three techniques to create funny characters your audience relates to and comedy skits they’ll enjoy.

Use Stereotypes to Create Funny Characters

The most obvious character that everyone already knows and understands in a comedy skit is the stereotype. The vain, female Diva, the dumb jock, the shifty guy who lurks in the shadows, the nerdy geek, the miserly accountant. And now that I’ve started you off with a few for your comedy skit, I’m sure you can create an extensive list.

Stereotypes make funny characters because your audience understands the character right away. The already know something of the character’s motivation and reasons behind what they say and do.

Exaggerate to the Max

Now to make that stereotype character really funny and increase the laughs, exaggerate them. The female Diva is not just vain. She’s so vain anytime her reflection presents itself, she stops to primp. The dumb jock is so clueless he doesn’t realize the football helmet he misplaced is on his head. And nerdy geek is so socially awkward he talks to computers like they’re people.

People laugh at stereotypes because the funny characters in your comedy skit are so exaggerated, they can’t possibly represent anyone in the audience. Even though everyone can probably think of someone in the audience that is very well represented in that funny character.

In one comedy skit I wrote and directed for a church worship service entitled, Focused on Priority three out of shape suburban ladies sign up for a fitness class thinking it will be a relaxing time of easy exercise. Instead, their personal trainer resembles an in your face, military drill sergeant that pushes them way beyond their expectations and comfort zone.

Add Contrast to Funny Characters and Situations

In comedy skits, opposites don’t attract, they create conflict. And conflict creates humorous energy in your skit. People in real life are never one-dimensional. And your funny characters shouldn’t be either. Even your stereotypical characters can surprise your audience and take your comedy skit to a deeper level.

The easiest way to accomplish this is by thinking opposites.

So your stuck-up Diva volunteers at a homeless shelter. The dumb jock is good at chess. The nerdy geek skateboards while listening to hard rock music. The stingy accountant feeds premium dog food to a stray dog that lives behind his office building.

You can also match-up opposite characters. This is the whole premise behind the odd couple. One guy is exceptionally clean and orderly and the other guy a complete slob.

When you drop your exaggerated, stereotyped characters into a situation together, you create instant conflict and the potential for great comedy skits.

What happens when a liberal atheist and conservative evangelical work together for a common cause? A church moves next door to a strip club? A crusty, negative old man adopts his innocent, faith-filled, eight year old grandchild who just lost both of his parents?

By creating exaggerated, stereotypical characters, adding contrast and combining them with opposite characters into various situations, you will create funny characters with depth and comedy skits your audience appreciates and enjoys.

There are many team sports in the world, but the more popular ones in descending order are soccer, cricket, basketball, baseball, rugby union and then field hockey. When you think of these you are naturally drawn to a male oriented participation within all of these sports.

Over the last 10-20 years female participation has increased within these usually male dominated sports. There are now professional bodies accepting that women have a right to play these sports as much as their male counterparts. With the likes of FIFA running the women’s game alongside the mens game as one solitary organisation.

When you think of netball you naturally think of it being a female sport, there are a minority of male teams and nations that play but these are few and far between. This is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players. It began during the 1890s in the UK and was formed from the early version of basketball predominantly for participation by women.

During the 1960s the game became standardised and the INF-International Netball Federation was formed. Within the UK the game is associated to England Netball formerly the All English Netball Association. There are over 92,000 affiliated members and over a million females put on their teams uniform to play every week.

Fairly recently netball has become a popular spectator sport, there has been a modernisation of the game and many teams now have names such as ‘Manchester Thunder’ and ‘Scottish Sirens, with a very smart matching team uniform worn by the players. These teams are watched regularly by an ever growing amount and diversity of supporters every week.

There are 4 main leagues across the UK which teams can get promoted and relegated from. These leagues consist of teams from Scotland all the way to London. At the current time within the UK, players do not get paid a salary to play the sport, however further afield in Australia the top women players in the national league do get paid.

Team apparel or uniforms are an important part of any teams look, some of the most iconic kits in the world are probably football kits, the famous Brazilian yellow and blue or the famous red kit of the England 1966 world cup winning team. Many teams kits consist of team colours and badge. The kits that are worn are almost tribal, they associate the team, the players and supporters as one.

As a sports club the best ideas to find a new kit for the up and coming season is to look online. There are now online companies that offer you the chance to not only chose from a stock range of cuts, designs and colours but also allow you to design your own kit.

Sublimated uniforms are the next big thing within netball. Within the Australian professional league these type of kits are the latest trend. The normal kit design would be a certain colour added to the front and back of the kit.

Sublimated uniforms use state of the art techniques to create a design where the only limits are your imagination. This type of process can incorporate a virtually limitless option of design and colour in which the teams logo or crest can be include in the design.

Even on the high tech fabrics like mesh and lycra of today’s uniforms the design can be transferred to using this type of technique. So do not begin the new season with a kit that does not give you the desire to go out on the court or pitch to play. Make sure you chose or design one that you feel a pride to play in.

Organizations begin with goals. People form into groups or organizations for a purpose. This formation may take place because one individual, an entrepreneur, has a vision of a new product or service to bring to the market and she recruits others to help her accomplish that goal. Or the organization may be based on the congruence of desires or interest of a number of individuals who band together to achieve their goal. Whatever the stimulus, the core of the organization is its goal.

Organizations are simply social inventions for accomplishing tasks or goals. Everyone is familiar with organizations because we live in them from the day we are born. Common examples are families, schools, churches, and clubs. People create organizations because they realize that they can magnify their own abilities by working with others towards common objectives. Once people come together in groups, tasks must be differentiated and labor divided. Specialization and division of labor has two benefits; it permits the optimal use of group members’ abilities thus playing to their strengths; and it avoids redundancy of labor by clearly delineating who does what. The resulting structure, however, requires coordination of effort. It also becomes clear that results are more likely to be achieved if someone is in charge of keeping the group moving towards its goal. Then the essence of management is born. Today’s most complex organizations reflect these essential building blocks.

The primacy of goals to organizations is clear; we hear them espouse goals every day. Pro football teams strive to win the Super Bowl and baseball teams the World Series. A political party in power has the goal of remaining there, while the minority party has the goal of claiming power for itself. NASA accomplished its goal of putting an American astronaut on the moon, and Lee Iacocca reached his goal of turning Chrysler Corporation around.

Goals are a person’s or an organization’s desired state of affairs; they are wishes people and organizations have about where or what they want to be at some future time. Goals have traditionally been closely linked to organizational effectiveness; the degree to which an organization attains its goals is, in the judgment of many analysts, a measure of its effectiveness.

Goals possess four general functions:

1. They provide direction to the activities of individuals and groups;

2. They shape how organizations plan and organize their activities;

3. They are used to motivate people to perform at high levels;

4. They form the basis for evaluating and controlling organizational activities.

It is precisely because of their multiple uses, and the different activities they lead to, that the subject of goals constitutes one of the most complex and controversial topics in management. Given the variety of uses of goals, consensus about an organization’s goal is highly important to that organization. But such consensus rarely exists. This lack of agreement constitutes just one of the problems involved in grappling with organizational goals. Some of the shortcomings of the goals approach have lead researchers to devise alternative approaches to the study of organizations.

Source: http://en.articlesgratuits.com/formation-of-organizations-id1446.php